This project was carried out to assess the roles of parent- Teacher Association on the teaching and learning in primary schools. Some primary schools were selected in Ojo Local Government Area which was used as the sample for the study, consisted of three private and public schools respectively. Hundred Questionnaires were shared for both the parents and pupils of the selected schools which were used as the sample to the study. Four research questions were tested and from the results obtained, the researcher was able to discover that there was a significant impact of the parent-teacher Association in achieving the goals of primary schools. The association has also helped tremendously in providing the necessary materials needed for the schools including fund which has contributed to the performance of the pupils in their examination.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content viii
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis 5
1.6 Significant of the study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 7
1.8 Limitation of the Study 7
1.9 Definition of Terms CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Introduction 9
2.1 History of Education in Nigeria 14
2.2 Primary Education System in Nigeria 17
2.3 Management and Control of Primary Education 20
2.3.1 Current State of Primary Education (Structure of
Primary Education) 22
2.4 Parent- Teacher Associations in the School System 24
2.5 Roles of Parent-Teacher Association in School Management 25
2.6 Roles of PTA in Teaching and Learning Process 27
2.7 Benefits of Parent- Teacher Association 34
2.7.1 The Benefits of PTA to the Pupils 34
2.7.2 Benefits of PTA to the parents/ Guardian 38
2.7.3 Benefits of PTA to the Teachers 39
2.7.4 Benefits of PTA to Schools 39
2.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Parent Teacher Association 45
2.8.1 Advantages of Parent Teacher Association 46
2.8.2 Disadvantages of Parent Teacher Association 46
3.1 Research Methodology 48
3.2 Research Design 48
3.3 Population of the Study 49
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 49
3.5 The Research Instrument 50
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument 51
3.7 Administration of the Questionnaire 51
3.8 Methods of Data Analysis 51
4.0 Data Analysis 52
4.1 Research Question one 52
4.2 Research Question Two 56
4.3 Research Question Three 59
4.4 Research Question Four 63
5.1 Summary 67
5.2 Conclusion 68
5.3 Recommendations 69
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Parent involvement is a salient predictor of students’ success (Million,
2003). In fact, many researchers suggest that parent involvement positivelyimpacts students’ achievement, attendance, attitudes, behavior,graduation, and life goals (Burke, 2001 and Belenardo, 2001). There is also much evidence that these benefits cross lines of family income and parenteducation level. In an era characterized by tremendous emphasis onschool accountability as measured by students’ performance, educationreform measures are replete with components that address parent involvement (Belenardo, 2001).
The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been rigorously advocated inNigeria in recent years, which aims at the promotion of parent involvementto enhance the educational outcomes of students. The number of PTAs has been increasing drastically.
Parents Teachers Association can be identified as very important variable that have potential for promoting directly or indirectly student academic achievements (Olatoye and Ogunkola, 2008). Looking at the quality of products that Nigeria’s secondary schools turn out, it appears the quality of education received by the students is low in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor development there-by making the secondary school system ineffective.
Omoregie (2006) lamented that the primary education which is the pivot of the entire educational system in Nigeria is fast loosing relevance, as it is not fulfilling the national objectives as set down in the National Policy of Education. The academic performance of primary school pupils could be attributed to several factors but this study is restricted to the role ofparents teachers’ association as a potential factor . It has been noticed in some areas, that schoolheadmasters/headmistress do not involve the parents in the administration of the schools for fear of being criticized. It appears in some cases, parents are no longer allowed to participate in school programmes and parents are no longer allowed to visit their children in school regularly to see how they fare.
There are instances where some principals no longer make use of the Parents-Teachers Association (PTA) in schools administration. All these tend to make the parents handicapped in assisting the school in the provision of qualitative education to its students .
According to Cotton and Wikelund (2001), many benefits are accrued for the school and for parents themselves when parents become involved in their children’s school activities. They maintained that, school personnel benefit from the improved rapport that generally accompanies increased parents’ involvement. This rapport is often expressed in parents’ increased willingness to support school with their labour and resources during fund-raising activities or specialprojects.
Besides, Henderson (1987), Hicks and Sammons (1992) and Hillman and Mortimore (1995) had showed in their various studies that parental presence in the school activities and participation in committees’ events and other activities all had positive effects on achievement.
Adewuyi (2002) also submitted that active parent involvement andpositive home-school-community relations have been shown to positively influence effective schooling and students’ achievement.
Ajayi (1999) also posited that, effective administration of schools could be hampered where the PTA is not performing its roles as expected.Also, Ajayi (2007) posited that, the school and the community areinterdependent and interrelated and for the relationship between them to be meaningful, worthwhile and productive, they must be willing to assist each other to achieve their respective goals in atmosphere of love, mutual trust and cooperation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
As educators struggle to identify and maximize the use of every resource toimprove students’ performance, it is increasingly important that theyestablish and maintain high levels of parent involvement in their schools.Although parent involvement at the elementary-school level has beenstudied extensively, more research is needed “to determine why there is adecrease of involvement as the child advances to higher grades” (Smith,2001, p. 149)
The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of thefactors that significantly affect the level of parent involvement during themiddle-school years.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purposes of this study are:
- To reveal parents’ and teachers’ perceptions towards the PTA in
achieving its goals.
- To examine the impact of parent involvement in the academic Performanceof pupils in the primary school.
- To explore factors that have been perceived to promote or inhibit theparents’ involvement in the academic process of students in pupils school.
- Toinvestigate the extent of parents’ involvement in school administration and its effect on the development of primary school pupils.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Are there any differences between the perceptions of parents andteachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving school goals?
- To what extent does parent involvement in the academic process affecttheir performance in primary school?
- What factors have been perceived to promote or inhibit parents’involvement in the academic progress of pupils in primary school?
- To what extent does parents’ involvement in school administration effectthe development of primary school pupils?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1) There is a significant difference between the perceptions of parentsand teachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving schoolgoals.
2) There is a significant effect on the parent involvement in theacademic processes and their performance in primary schools.
3) There are significant factors which have been perceived to promoteor inhibit parents’ involvement in the academic progress of pupils inprimary school.
4) There is a significant relationship in parents’ involvement in theschool administration and it effect on the development of primaryschool pupils.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educatorsand school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help ParentsTeachers Association in achieving its school goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their own PTAs,which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomesin school.
In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it sharesquite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In this connection,this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect uponthe rationales and goals set by their own PTAs.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work focuses on the role of Parents Teachers Association inthe development of primary school pupils in some selected schools in OjoLocal Government Area of Lagos State. This research work covers allpublic primary schools students in Ojo Local Government Area of LagosState. However, four public primary schools will be used as case study.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Apart from time-frame and shortage of finance, the major limitation to this research is the inability of the researcher to cover the whole Public primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area Of Lagos State asthe title suggest.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- PTA = Parents Teachers Association.
- PTO= Parents Teachers Organisation.
- PTM = Parents Teachers Meeting.
- PUBLIC SCHOOL = A school that is owned, control and fund by the government.
- ECCE = Early Child Care and Education.
- LGA = Local Government Authority.
- SUBEB = State Universal Basic Education Board.
- PRIMARY EDUCATION = This is the “education given in institution for children aged 6 to 11plus”for a duration of six years.
DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, eProjectTopics.com are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. eProjectTopics.com is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on eProjectTopics.com is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.