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This project was carried out to assess the roles of parent- Teacher Association on the teaching and learning in primary schools. Some primary schools were selected in Ojo Local Government Area which was used as the sample for the study, consisted of three private and public schools respectively. Hundred Questionnaires were shared for both the parents and pupils of the selected schools which were used as the sample to the study. Four research questions were tested and from the results obtained, the researcher was able to discover that there was a significant impact of the parent-teacher Association in achieving the goals of primary schools. The association has also helped tremendously in providing the necessary materials needed for the schools including fund which has contributed to the performance of the pupils in their examination.



Certification                                                                         ii

Dedication                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                              iv


Table of content                                                                 viii


1.1 Background of the Study                                              1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                           4

1.3 Purpose of the Study                                                   4

1.4 Research Questions                                                                    5

1.5 Research   Hypothesis                                                5

1.6 Significant of the study                                                6

1.7 Scope of the Study                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       7

1.8 Limitation of the Study                                                  7

1.9 Definition of Terms                                                                                                                                                                CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Introduction                                                                     9

2.1 History of Education in Nigeria                                       14

2.2 Primary Education System in Nigeria                                     17

2.3 Management and Control of Primary Education              20

2.3.1 Current State of Primary Education (Structure of

Primary Education)                                                                 22

2.4 Parent- Teacher Associations in the School System       24

2.5 Roles of Parent-Teacher Association in School Management                                                                           25

2.6 Roles of PTA in Teaching and Learning Process             27

2.7 Benefits of Parent- Teacher Association                          34

2.7.1 The Benefits of PTA to the Pupils                                 34

2.7.2 Benefits of PTA to the parents/ Guardian                      38

2.7.3 Benefits of PTA to the Teachers                                    39

2.7.4 Benefits of PTA to Schools                                           39

2.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Parent Teacher Association                                                                         45

2.8.1 Advantages of Parent Teacher Association              46

2.8.2 Disadvantages of Parent Teacher Association          46



3.1 Research Methodology                                               48

3.2 Research Design                                                         48

3.3 Population of the Study                                               49

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques                             49

3.5 The Research Instrument                                            50

3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument                     51

3.7 Administration of the Questionnaire                            51

3.8 Methods of Data Analysis                                           51



4.0  Data Analysis                                                              52

4.1 Research Question one                                               52

4.2 Research Question Two                                              56

4.3 Research Question Three                                            59

4.4 Research Question Four                                          63



5.1 Summary                                                                  67

5.2 Conclusion                                                               68

5.3 Recommendations                                                  69

References                                                                     71

Questionnaire                                                                 75



Parent involvement is a salient predictor of students’ success (Million,

2003). In fact, many researchers suggest that parent involvement positivelyimpacts students’ achievement, attendance, attitudes, behavior,graduation, and life goals (Burke, 2001 and Belenardo, 2001). There is also much evidence that these benefits cross lines of family income and parenteducation level. In an era characterized by tremendous emphasis onschool accountability as measured by students’ performance, educationreform measures are replete with components that address parent involvement (Belenardo, 2001).

The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been rigorously advocated inNigeria in recent years, which aims at the promotion of parent involvementto enhance the educational outcomes of students. The number of PTAs has been increasing drastically.

Parents Teachers Association can be identified  as  very  important variable  that  have  potential  for  promoting directly  or indirectly  student  academic  achievements  (Olatoye  and Ogunkola,  2008). Looking  at  the  quality  of  products  that  Nigeria’s secondary  schools turn  out,  it  appears  the  quality  of education  received  by  the  students is  low  in  terms  of cognitive,  affective  and  psychomotor  development there-by  making  the  secondary  school  system  ineffective.

Omoregie (2006)  lamented that the primary education which is the pivot of the entire  educational  system  in Nigeria  is  fast  loosing  relevance,  as  it  is not  fulfilling  the national  objectives  as  set  down  in  the  National  Policy of Education. The academic performance of primary school pupils  could be attributed  to  several  factors  but  this  study  is  restricted to the role ofparents teachers’ association  as  a potential  factor . It has been noticed in some  areas,  that schoolheadmasters/headmistress  do  not  involve the  parents  in  the  administration  of  the  schools  for fear  of being criticized. It  appears  in  some  cases,  parents  are  no longer  allowed  to participate  in  school  programmes  and parents  are  no  longer  allowed to  visit  their  children  in school regularly  to  see  how  they  fare.

There are instances where some principals no longer make   use   of   the Parents-Teachers Association  (PTA)  in  schools administration.  All these tend  to  make  the  parents  handicapped  in  assisting the  school  in  the provision  of  qualitative  education  to  its students .

According  to  Cotton  and  Wikelund  (2001),  many benefits  are  accrued for  the  school  and  for  parents themselves  when  parents  become involved  in  their children’s  school  activities.  They  maintained  that, school personnel  benefit  from  the  improved  rapport  that generally accompanies  increased  parents’  involvement. This  rapport  is  often expressed  in  parents’  increased willingness  to  support  school  with their  labour  and resources  during  fund-raising  activities  or  specialprojects.

Besides,  Henderson  (1987),  Hicks  and  Sammons (1992)  and Hillman and  Mortimore  (1995)  had  showed  in their  various  studies  that parental  presence  in  the  school activities  and  participation  in committees’  events  and other  activities  all  had  positive  effects  on achievement.

Adewuyi  (2002)  also  submitted  that  active  parent  involvement andpositive home-school-community relations have been  shown  to  positively influence  effective  schooling and students’ achievement.

Ajayi  (1999)  also  posited  that,  effective  administration of  schools  could  be hampered  where  the  PTA  is  not performing  its  roles  as  expected.Also,  Ajayi  (2007) posited  that,  the  school  and  the  community  areinterdependent  and  interrelated  and  for  the  relationship between  them to  be  meaningful,  worthwhile  and productive,  they  must  be  willing  to assist  each  other  to achieve  their  respective  goals  in  atmosphere  of love, mutual trust and cooperation.


As educators struggle to identify and maximize the use of every resource toimprove students’ performance, it is increasingly important that theyestablish and maintain high levels of parent involvement in their schools.Although parent involvement at the elementary-school level has beenstudied extensively, more research is needed “to determine why there is adecrease of involvement as the child advances to higher grades” (Smith,2001, p. 149)

The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of thefactors that significantly affect the level of parent involvement during themiddle-school years.


The purposes of this study are:

  1. To reveal parents’ and teachers’ perceptions towards the PTA in

achieving its goals.

  1. To examine the impact of parent involvement in the academic Performanceof pupils in the primary school.
  2. To explore factors that have been perceived to promote or inhibit theparents’ involvement in the academic process of students in pupils school.
  3. Toinvestigate the extent of parents’ involvement in school administration and its effect on the development of primary school pupils.


  1. Are there any differences between the perceptions of parents andteachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving school goals?
  2. To what extent does parent involvement in the academic process affecttheir performance in primary school?
  3. What factors have been perceived to promote or inhibit parents’involvement in the academic progress of pupils in primary school?
  4. To what extent does parents’ involvement in school administration effectthe development of primary school pupils?


1) There is a significant difference between the perceptions of parentsand teachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving schoolgoals.

2) There is a significant effect on the parent involvement in theacademic processes and their performance in primary schools.

3) There are significant factors which have been perceived to promoteor inhibit parents’ involvement in the academic progress of pupils inprimary school.

4) There is a significant relationship in parents’ involvement in theschool administration and it effect on the development of primaryschool pupils.


It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educatorsand school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help ParentsTeachers Association in achieving its school goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their own PTAs,which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomesin school.

In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it sharesquite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In this connection,this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect uponthe rationales and goals set by their own PTAs.



This research work focuses on the role of Parents Teachers Association inthe development of primary school pupils in some selected schools in OjoLocal Government Area of Lagos State. This research work covers allpublic primary schools students in Ojo Local Government Area of LagosState. However, four public primary schools will be used as case study.


Apart from time-frame and shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole Public primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area Of Lagos State asthe title suggest.


  1. PTA = Parents Teachers Association.
  2. PTO= Parents Teachers Organisation.
  3. PTM = Parents Teachers Meeting.
  4. PUBLIC SCHOOL = A school that is owned, control and fund by the government.
  5. ECCE = Early Child Care and Education.
  6. LGA = Local Government Authority.
  7. SUBEB = State Universal Basic Education Board.
  8. PRIMARY EDUCATION = This is the “education given in institution for children aged 6 to 11plus”for a duration of six years.



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