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The end-of-course grades assigned by lecturers are intended to convey the
level of achievement of each student in the class. These grades are used to make
a multitude of decisions. Unless a sufficiently accurate and efficient method is
used for the grading, the grades are apt to convey misinformation and lead
the decision-maker astray. In itself, the processing of results is found to be
rather tedious, especially when carried out manually, and when the number of
students is large. It is time-consuming and error prone. The process, however,
becomes a lot easier and much more accurate when carried out with a computer
running a suitable software application. To find a sufficiently fast and accurate
method of carrying out this processing is a problem that is both challenging
and interesting. In this work, a computer software application was developed
to facilitate the automated processing of the results. The software was developed in
Java programming language in the form of a database, employing
PostgreSQL Relational Database Management System. The developed software
performed well and produced expected results on completion. With it, it was
possible to compute Grade Point Average and Cumulative Grade Point Average for
each student based on examination scores entered being the core idea behind the
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
Title page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of Contents vi
1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study 7
1.4 Significance of the Study 8
1.5 Scope of the Study 8
1.6 Limitations of the Study 9
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
1.7 Definition of Technical Terms 10
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Computer Systems and Other Related Concepts 15
2.3 Result Processing and Associated Concepts 23
2.3.1 Processing 23
2.3.2 Problems Associated with Data Processing 24
2.3.3 Formats of Result 25
2.4 Computer Systems and Result Processing 26
2.4.1 Result Processing Stages 26
2.4.2 Modes of Result Processing 27
3.1 Introduction 29
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
3.2 Problem Identification 30
3.3 Method of Data Collection 31
3.3.1 Interviewing 31
3.3.2 Observation 32
3.3.3 Evaluation and Inspection of Documents 32
3.4 Problems of the Existing System 32
3.5 Analysis of the Current System 33
3.6 The Organization and Its Environment 34
3.7 Analysis of the Proposed System 36
4.1 Introduction 40
4.2 Objectives of the New System 40
4.3 System Design 42
4.4 Program Design 44
4.5 General Flowchart of the Proposed System 45
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
4.6 Program Specification Flowchart 46
4.6.1 Program Module Flowcharts 47
4.6.2 Program Modules 50
4.7 Database Specification 51
4.8 Data Dictionary 51
4.9 Input/Ouput Design 60
4.9.1 Input Specifications and Design 61
4.9.2 Output Specifications 63
4.10 Choice of Programming Language 64
4.11 Program Documentation and Implementation 67
4.11.1System Implementation 67
4.11.2Hardware and Operating System Requirement 67
4.11.3Software Specifications 67
4.11.4Requirements for Processor 68
4.11.5RAM Size 68
4.11.6Disk Space 68
4.11.7Run/Operate the Software 69
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
4.11.8Detailed Implementation Plans 69
4.11.10File Conversion 69
4.11.11Training of Operators and Users 70
5.1 Summary 71
5.2 Conclusion 72
5.3 Recommendations 73
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
3.1 Federal University of Technology, Owerri Organogram 35
3.2 Block diagram of the system 39
4.1 Conceptual Design of a System 43
4.2 General Flowchart of the Proposed System 46
4.3 Base Record Setup 47
4.4 Enrolment Flowchart 48
4.5 Validation Flowchart 49
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
1.1 FUTO Faculties and associated number of departments 4
4.1 Academic Session 52
4.2 User Country 52
4.3 Course 53
4.4 Degree 53
4.5 Degree Class 54
4.6 Department 54
4.7 Faculty 55
4.8 Grade 55
4.9 Level of Study 56
4.10 Result 56
4.11 Semester 57
4.12 Sex 57
4.13 Staff 58
4.14 State 59
4.15 Title 59
4.16 Validation Record 60
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
1.1 Background of Study
The errors associated with the existing manual method of processing of students’
results in most universities in Nigeria, including the Federal University of
Technology, Owerri, make it not only desirable but imperative that computerized
approach be used to the full in measuring students’ academic progress. The manual
methods being employed suffer a number of set-back. They make the process to be
time-consuming and prone to errors even as they lead to late publication of
examination results. Worst still, sometimes wrong grades are being entered and
students’ grade point averages are computed wrongly. Consequently, the
cumulative errors being generated are ultimately linked to awarding of erroneous
class of degree. Some students could end up with undeserved good classes of
degree, while others could be unfairly victimized, bringing about frustration. In
this case, the image of the department(s) concerned and the whole University alike
could become tarnished. The problem, therefore, that arises is to find a method of
processing examination results that would be sufficiently accurate and reasonably
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
Result processing is a routine activity. Every semester in the higher institution calls
for assessment of the performances of the students. This assessment usually comes
in the form of examinations, tests, practicals, labs, and the like. Without an
assessment of the students, there will not be the need to work hard.
Assessment takes the form of a reward system. Students are interested in a
competitive environment. Tracing this to the primary and secondary school
systems where the students are graded in positions; each student works very hard
to make the best results. The higher institution system is no difference. At the end
of each academic semester, the results of the semester academic activities are
computed. The issue here is in the conversion of the levels of involvement and
expertise of the students into relative figures which ranks the students.
There are over forty (40) departments in the Federal University of Technology,
Owerri (FUTO), each having an average of over four hundred students. A simple
calculation here surfaces that there are over sixteen thousand students in FUTO;
excluding the post graduate and pre degree students. Each of the students in every
level has results to be computed. The task of result processing and other academic
activities mandates the assignment of course advisers to take care of such
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
Result, by way of definition is the consequence of an action; the conclusion of a
problem, or experiment after a period of time. At the end of each academic
semester, the results of the exams, tests, practicals and labs are calculated and the
grades are correspondingly computed. This is done by the various course
coordinators of the courses. The next phase of the result processing process is done
by the level course adviser. Each level of every department has its own dedicated
course adviser. The course adviser acts on the list of results of all the students in
his/her level and those of other students who sat for courses in other levels; either
as borrowed courses or as carry over courses. The task ahead of the course adviser
is to convert the grades of the students submitted to him into grade equivalents.
The Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) is characterized by six
faculties. The faculties with the associated number of departments are tabulated
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
Table 1.1: FUTO Faculties and associated number of departments
1 Engineering and Engineering Technology 9
2 Sciences 11
3 Management Technology 6
4 Agriculture and Agricultural Technology 7
5 Health Technology 5
6 Environmental Technology 6
* TOTAL 44
In Universities like FUTO, the need for automated method of keeping data has
been there. There have been several attempts to develop systems for automating
result processing, but most of the work of this project will be on the processing of
the results of the students at the undergraduate levels; and also span across other
course advisers’ functions. With Information Management Technology department
as the organization’s case study, this work is focused on providing alternative
solutions to the general problems associated with result processing, adding and
dropping of courses, registration of extra course units, timely computation of
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
students’ grades, course registrations, and above all, security issues which hinders
unauthorized access to results by students and lecturers.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problems posed by manual methods of result processing are enormous. The
situation is the same in Federal University of Technology, Owerri and
correspondingly, Information Management Technology department. The issues
here can only be addressed by employing upper hands. The effort expended in the
process of registration of students and computation of their examination results is
tedious. Quite worrisome is the fact that these processes are carried out every
academic session, putting the operators in a continuous and ever demanding cycle.
The computation of examination results and registration of students is obviously an
object-centered activity, the student being the dominant object in this case. Hence,
the need to evolve not just a computerized process, but an object-oriented
software design and implementation that will effectively and efficiently
capture all the important objects associated with the registration and examination
result processing within the University and the interactions among the objects.
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
This genuine and noble desire necessitated the design and implementation of a
result processing application for a course program, with Information Management
Technology as the organization in question.
So many softwares have been developed and even sold worldwide to solve this
problem but most of such softwares have been discovered to be inefficient.
Another problem which these softwares have posed is non-user specific problems
as they are rather general use softwares, than specific use softwares. Students as
well has researched and developed their own software but they could not give or
develop error free software that will assist in result generation, automated course
registration to keep or build a database of results in the university that will
facilitate students’ transcripts.
This problem has been procrastinating the results of graduating or graduated
students hence, delay in leaving for the National Youth Service when they ought to
have gone. This problem has dominated the system especially in the department of
case study, Information Management Technology Department.
To arrest this problem, there is a need to develop software that is accurate, error
free, and that can run on the web (using real time) in order to give students access
to their results as at when needed. This will also help reduce the queue usually seen
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
at the course advisers’ office during result’s check and in turn tackle the so much
stress on both exams and record and the management in Universities.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this project is to design and develop system that can:
1. Provide a reliable solution to result processing that is corruption free.
2. Ensure that normal credit load in line with the school is maintained.
3. Provide a software that will generate result that is accurate, timely and error
4. Maintain a reliable database for storage of students’ records and update as
the need arises.
5. Restrict unauthorized access to the students’ record.
6. Provide an advice engine based on the current status of the student advices
the student result which on the next course of action to take in his/her
academic pursuit.
7. Produce relevant report of students’ general performance at the end of every
academic semester, presented in the form of tables, charts and graphs, etc.
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
1.4 Significance of the Study
The project work will help in a good number of ways to ease the delay in manual
examination processing. The software developed will help schools management to
achieve efficient Information Management System. There are many other
advantages, and some of them are listed below.
1. It saves time during examination processing.
2. Database for course registration and examination result is maintained.
3. References are very fast and delays can be avoided.
4. It allows easy access to stored information.
5. It provides a medium for the students to interact and discuss their results and
the way forward of their academics.
6. It helps in reducing the costs such as labor, inventory and stationery.
7. Generation of accurate results/information on transactions is ensured.
8. It guarantees the students unshared access to their individual results.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research work will concentrate on course registration and examination
processing system, as well as course adviser functions provided in an automated
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
format which enables the course adviser, the Head of Department, seen here as the
enroller and the validator respectively, as well as the student to interact with the
application effectively. This work will also use Information Management
Technology department as the organization in question for its development. The
system developed will only cover registration of students, course registration,
result processing, advising functions, course creation and mapping and security of
students’ record functions.
1.6 Limitations of Study
In the course of this design, some factors led to constraints in the effective
actualization of the project.
 The duration for this project was too small for the study to be carried out in a
more complex scope. There were some other programmes like exams, to be
attended to which curtailed the time spent on the project. The above
constraint led to limiting the application functionalities.
 The limited resources available for carrying out this project posed a major
constraint. There was much work to be done but, limited cash was available.
The available related materials in this research topic were insufficient and
some of the respondents were unwilling to supply useful information.
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
 There is not sufficient knowledge in the programming languages chosen for
this work which led to involving upper hands at an expense.
1.7 Definition of Technical Terms
Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, instructions and
equipment to produce information in a useful form.
Technology: It is study of techniques or process of mobilizing
Resource (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefits man and
his environment.
Information: Information can be defined as the process of gathering, transmitting,
receiving, storing and retrieving data or several items put together to convey a
desired message.
Computer Network: Computer Network is a system that connects two or more
computers together using a communication link.
Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so
that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.
File Transfer: Any kind of computer file can be sent via the Internet from one
Internet user to another. Table of accounts on spreadsheets, design by a graphic
artists, music sound files etc, can all be exchanged in this way.
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
Database Table(s): It is a collection rows and columns where in the database
which are used for logical data storage and retrieval in the database.
Database Management System (DBMS): This is the software that performs the
task of database management.
Transaction: This is a group of operation (database operations) that must be
executed as one.
Encapsulation: This is the concept of hiding specific behavior and attributes from
a user.
Class: This is the prototype from where an object can be created.
Object: This is an instance of a class that which has both attributes and behaviors.
Inheritance: This is the one of the features of Object Oriented Programming
(OOP) that gives it the capabilities or properties of a class.
Entity: This is an object with a set of properties that makes it easily identifiable.
Attributes: There are the properties of an entity. They provide information about
and entity and also differentiate one entity from anther.
Relationship: This refers to the association among entities.
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
Entity Relationship Diagram: This is the pictorial representation of a database. It
lists the various components of a database and depicts the relationships between
components in the database.
Programming Language: This is the language used to give instructions to the
Structure Query Language (SQL): This is a very high level programming
language that is used to query the database
Java Programming Language: This is an object oriented programming language
that is used to develop different types of software application.
Programmer: Someone who can read, understand one or two programming(s) and
has the ability to develop software applications using some programming
Application Programming Interface (API): This is a class library that provides a
collection of classes which the programmer may take advantage of when
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC): This is a Java API for communicating with
different database systems.
An Enhanced Online Result Processing System for Information Management Technology Department, FUTO
Method: This is a data member of a class which is used by the objects of such
class for performing its actions.
Constructor: This is a method like construct that has the same name as the class.
It is also used to create an object.
Java platform 2 Standard Edition (J2SE):This is the technology platform used
in developing standalone applications
Java platform 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE): This is the technology platform
used in developing enterprise applications (web based applications).
Java platform 2 Micro Edition (J2ME): This is the technology platform used in
developing mobile applications (software for mobile devices).


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