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Title Page i
Certification Page ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of Content v
List of tables viii
Abstract x
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Aims and objectives 3
2.0 Literature review 5
2.1 Wound infection 8
2.2 Definition of honey 9
2.3 Local test for honey 13
2.4 Classification of honey 14
2.5 Preservation of honey 16
2.6 Properties and active ingredient of honey 17
2.7 Mode of action of some antibacterial substance
present in honey 20
2.8 Clinical conditions for treatment with honey 22
2.9 Honey as an antimicrobial agent 24
2.10 Practical consideration for the clinical use of honey 27
2.11 Adverse reaction of honey 28
2.12 Research on honey 29
3.1 Source of Sample 32
3.2 Sources of honey 32
3.3 Identification of organisms 32
3.4 Gram Staining 33
3.5 Indole test 34
3.6 Catalase test 34
3.7 Coagulase test 35
3.8 Antibacterial sensitivity test 35
4.1 Result 37
5.1 Discussion 40
5.2 Conclusion 42
5.3 Recommendation 43
Appendix 1 51
Appendix 2 54
Table 1 – Composition of honey 13
Table 2 – Result of Biochemical tests 25
Table 3 – Inhibition of honey from Enugu North (Nsukka) 26
Table 4 – Inhibition of honey from Enugu South (Ugwuaji) 26
Antibacterial activity of honey obtained from two different locations
in Enugu State (Nsukka & Ugwuaji) Nigeria on Staphylococcus
aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogens isolated from
wound was studied. Agar well diffusion method was used to
determine the antibacterial activity of the honey on the test
microorganisms. The result revealed that the two honey samples
have heavy antibacterial activities against the test organisms and
zones of inhibition were obtained showing high antibacterial
activity. The antibacterial activity increased with increase in the
concentrations and honey from Nsukka produced a high
antibacterial activity (clearer zone) on staphylococcus aureus and
Escherichia coli at all concentration and moderately for
streptococcus pyogens. The use of honey as a therapeutic
substance has been rediscovered by the medical profession on
more recent times, and it is gaining acceptance as an antibacterial
agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other
infections resulting from burns and wounds.
1.0 Introduction
Infections and other health related problems have been of great
concern to human beings and chemotherapy is the main approach in
the treatment of such conditions. Investigation into the microbial
flora of wound began in the late 19th century and since then;
improvements in techniques have facilitated the recovery,
identification and enumeration of a wide variety of microbial species.
Most wounds support relatively stable polymicrobial communities
(Bowkler,; 2001) often without signs of clinical infection
(Hansson,et al; 1993).
However, potential pathogens may be present and the delicate
balance between colonized wound and an infected wound depends on
the interplay of complex host and microbial influences (Emmerson,
1998). The development of wound infection has deleterious effect on
patients by causing increased pain, discomfort, inconveniences and
can lead to life threatening conditions or even death.
Major challenges encountered with antibiotics in clinical use are
resistance to antibiotics which leads eventually to failure of the
treatment (Blair 2004). Infectious diseases are known to be treated
with herbal remedies throughout the history of mankind; even today,
natural substances continue to play a major role in primary health
care as therapeutic remedies in many developing countries (Jonathan,; 2007). Over the years, there have been reports of the production
of more potent antibiotics e.g. third and fourth generation of
cephalosporin by pharmaceutical companies which are not readily
available and expensive. Problems of various antibiotics include low
efficacy, side effect which has lead investigations into natural and
potent antibacterial seeming to be the right step to take. The invasion
of pathogenic organism is on the rise as a result, effects are been
made to develop antibacterial agent from natural sources for better
therapeutic effect (Gills, 1992). The therapies have drawn the interest
of both public and medicinal communities. Current research has been
focused on herbal and aromatherapy product. However, a number of
their product such as honey has shown therapeutic promise.
The presence in honey of various inhibins as described by (Doid and
Dzaio, 1937) has been reported by several investigators. Honey was
used to treat infected wound as long as 2000 years ago before
bacterial were discovered to be the cause of infection in c.50 AD,
Dioscorides described honey as been “good for all rotten and hollow
ulcers” (Gunther, 1959). More recently, honey has been reported to
have an inhibitory effect to around 60 species of bacterial including
aerobes and anaerobes, Gram positive and Gram negative (Molan,
1992). The current prevalence of the therapeutic use of ancient
remedies, include honey committee on science and technology.
1.1 Aims and objectives.
1. To determine antibacterial potential of honey.
2. To investigate the mechanism of antibacterial action of honey.
3. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of honey on
bacterial isolates from wounds of human beings.
4. To yield additional knowledge such as the possible dilution of
honey sample and activity of the honey sample in bacterial


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