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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 DESCRIPTION OF SCHISTOMIASIS
Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, snail fever, and Katayama fever, is a
disease caused by parasiticflatworms of the Schistosomatype. The urinary tract or
the intestines may be infected. Signs and symptoms may include abdominal pain,
diarrhea,(Akpinar, 2012). Bloody stool, or blood in the urine. In those who have
been infected a long time, liver damage, kidney failure, infertility, or bladder
cancer may occur. In children, it may cause poor growth and learning
difficulty(Antounet al., 2005).
The disease is spread by contact with fresh water contaminated with the parasites.
These parasites are released from infected freshwater snails. The disease is
especially common among children in developing countries as they are more likely
to play in contaminated water(Akpinar, 2012). Other high risk groups include
farmers, fishermen, and people using unclean water during daily living. It belongs
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to the group of helminth infections. Diagnosis is by finding eggs of the parasite in
a person’s urine or stool. It can also be confirmed by finding antibodies against the
disease in the blood(Duke, 2002).
Methods to prevent the disease include improving access to clean water and
reducing the number of snails.(Duke,.2002) In areas where the disease is common,
the medication praziquantel may be given once a year to the entire group. This is
done to decrease the number of people infected and, consequently, the spread of
the disease. Praziquantel is also the treatment recommended by the World Health
Organization(WHO) for those who are known to be infected(Akpinar, 2012)..
(Antounet al., 2005) Schistosomiasis affected almost 210 million people
worldwide as of 2012. An estimated 12,000 to 200,000 people die from it each
year. The disease is most commonly found in Africa, as well as Asia and South
America. Around 700 million people, in more than 70 countries, live in areas
where the disease is common. In tropical countries, schistosomiasis is second only
to malaria among parasitic diseases with the greatest economic impact.
Schistosomiasis is listed as a neglected tropical disease(Akpinar, 2012).
1.1 STUDY AREA
This study was carried out at START RIGHT MODEL SCHOOL Sango Ota Ogun
State Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area. Schistosomiasis is noticed at this area
of Ogun State Nigeria and some neighboring areas including Ado-Odo, Owode,
and e.t.c. This is as a result of some factor like;
 Poor drainage system
 Poor waste disposal
 Over flooding etc.
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1.2 PURPOSE OF STUDY
This study focuses on creating awareness to citizen of Sango Ota Ogun State
AdoOdo Ota Local Government Area on the presences of intestinal
schistosomiasis and its possible prevention and control.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study is to identify the presences of intestinal
schistosomiasis and its possible prevention and control at Sango Ota Ogun State
Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
This research focuses on the prevalence of intestinal Schistosomiasis among pupils
in START RIGHT MODELSCHOOL Sango Ota Ogun State AdoOdo Ota Local
Government Area and possible prevention and control method.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Some of the limitation faced in the course of carrying out this project is:
 Illiteracy of parent in the area
 Poor finance
 Difficulty in the collection of sample
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1.6 DEFINITION OF TERM
Helminths: are large multicellular organisms, which when mature can generally be
seen with the naked eye. They are often referred to as intestinal worms even
though not all helminths reside in the intestines; for example schistosomes are not
intestinal worms, but rather reside in blood vessels.
Phylogeny: The phylogenetic relationships of the nematodes and their close
relatives among the protostomianMetazoa are unresolved.
Mutualism:a relationship between two species of organisms in which both benefit
from the association.
Commensalism: A type of relationship between two species of a plant, animal,
fungus, etc., in which one lives with, on, or in another without damage to either.
Parasitism: arelationbetweenorganismsinwhichonelivesasaparasiteonanother
Helminthology:Helminthology is the study of parasitic worms (helminths), while
helminthiasis describes the medical condition of being infected with helminths.

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