TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content
CHAPTER ONE [INTRODUTION]
1.1 Background of information
1.2 Purpose of study
1.3 Significance of study
1.4 Limitation of study
1.5 Definition of terms
2.0 CHAPTER TWO -LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Effect of Antimicrobial on Medical Soap on Staphylococcus aureus From
2.2 Medical Relevance of Antimicrobial Soap
2.3 Normal Skin Microbiota and Soap
CHAPTER THREE -MATERIAL AND METHODS
3.1 Apparatus and Equipment
3.2 Sample collection
3.3 Preparation of media
3.4 Isolation of Micro organism
3.5 Gram staining on Primary Isolation
3.6 Preparation of Soap Samples
3.7 Preparation of Sensitivity Disc with Soap Samples
3.8 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
CHAPTER FOUR -RESULT DISCUSSION
4.1 Data presentation
4.2 Data analysis
4.3 Data interpretation
CHAPTER FIVE -CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Two medicated soaps and one local soap were investigated for their antibacterial
activities against Staphylococcus aureus. Identification of the bacteria species was
by standard microbiological techniques which included colonial examination, gram
staining, and biochemical testing. Minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal
activities of the soaps were determined by disc agar diffusion method. Black soap
has the highest antibacterial activity while branded medicated soap 2 exhibited the
least zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. The soap analyzed has
bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects on the test pathogen. The use of local and
medicated soaps is thus recommended in homes, schools, offices and hospitals.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Soaps and other cleansing agents have been around for quite a long time. For
generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of
personal hygiene. Bacteria are very diverse and present in soil, water, sewage and
on human body and are of great importance with reference to health (Johnson et
al., 2002). In 1961 the U.S public Health service recommendation directed that
personnel wash their hands with soap and water for 1 to 2 minutes before and after
client contact. The antibacterial soaps can remove 65 to 85% bacteria from human
skin (Osborne and Grube, 1982). Although fats and oils are general ingredients of
soaps but some detergent additives enhance the antibacterial activities of soaps
(Friedman and Wolf, 1996).
Transient bacteria are deposited on the skin surface from environmental sources
and cause skin infections. Examples of such bacteria are Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(Fluit et al., 2001) and Staphylococcus aureus (Higaki et al., 2000). The
importance of hand washing is more crucial when it is associated to health care
workers because of possible cross contaminating of bacteria that may be
pathogenic or opportunistic (Richards et al., 1999). Hand hygiene and prevention
of infection through the use of medicated soaps has been well recognized. A large
number of chemical compounds have the ability to inhibit the growth and
metabolism of microorganisms or kill them. The number of chemicals is enormous,
probably at least 10, 000 with 1,000 commonly used in the hospital and homes.
Chemicals exist as solids, liquids and gases. Of the many groups of chemicals used
to reduce or destroy microbes important groups include hydrogen, phenols, soaps,
detergents, ammonia compounds, alcohols, heavy metals, acids and certain special
compound. Disinfection, decontamination, antisepsis/sanitization and sterilization,
just naming a few are terms that describe the process of cleaning by either
soaps/detergents or other cleaning agents. Numerous cleaning agents are available
in the market, which are presented in various forms with distinct formulation.
Triclosan, trichlorocarbanilide and P-chloro-in-xylenol (PCMX/Chloroxylenol) are
the commonly used anti-bacterials in medicated soaps. These are generally only
contained at preservation level unless the product is clearly marked as
antibacterial, antiseptic, or germicidal (Larson et al., 1989).
According to pelage et al (2007) antibacterial activity is the ability to either destroy
bacteria or inhibit their growth. This is significant with respects to the human body
in preventing sepsis and skin infections. Also Derland (1981) states that medicated
soap have the germicidal substance like chloroxyhlenol potassium mercuric iodide,
trichlorocarbanlide etc. incorporated into them, in order to enhance their
antibacterial activity. These germicide substances are normally added in a specified
amount and percentage of the substance used always stated on the soap case or
inside the leaflet which certain the information on how to use the soap for various
Anon (1964) states that soap may be defined as a chemical compound resulting
from the interaction of fatty acids oil and caustic soda (alkali) possesing the
characteristic soap like properties of detergents, surface tension lowering wetting
and emulsifying power and gel formation. All fatty oils and fats are mixtures of
glycoside compounds (erters) of trihydric alcohol, glycosides and some fatty acids
such as plasmatic acid the chemistry of soap manufacturing may be expressed the
following equation which is known as saponification (Anon (1964).
Baker et al (1985) explained that chemical agent function as a sterilizing agent by
the following lethal mechanisms
1. Disruption of the cell membranes.
2. Interfering with orgymatic systems of the organisms enzyme poison.
3. Co-agulation of protein.
LOCAL BLACK SOAP
A local traditional medicated soap widely used by different tribes in Nigeria such
as Hausa, Yoruba (ose dudu). The soap is produced from a mixture of vegetable oil
(palm kerner oil and shea butter) that make the soap to have antimicrobial
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1. To isolate staphylococcus aureus from wound infection.
2. To determine the antibacterial activity of three medicated soap on
staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infection.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of the project work will indicate the antibacterial activity of medicated
soap. And if favourable, then local black soap and two medicated soap can be used
for washing the surface of minor wound before the application of further
1.6 LIMTATION OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to one local black soap and two types of medicated soaps
which are: a. Branded medicated soap1
b. Branded medicated soap2
c. Local black soap. To treat various skin infection (wound), but financial
constraints, time, limited our study.
1.7 DEFINATION OF THE TERMS
ANTIMICROBIAL: An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or
inhibits their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the
microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibiotics are used
against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi.
MEDICATED SOAP: It is a cleaning or emulsifying agent made by reacting
animal or vegetable fats or oils with potassium or sodium hydroxide
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