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Title Page                                                                                          i

Certification Page                                                                              ii

Acknowledgement                                                                            iii

Table of Contents                                                                              iv

List of Tables                                                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                                            v



  • Background of the Study
  • Statement of Problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Objectives of the Study
  • Research Questions
  • Significance of Study
  • Scope of Study
  • Operational Definition of Terms



2.1     Historical Perspective of Body Piercing Tattooing

2.2     Common Complications arising from Body Piercing

and Tattooing

2.3     Prevention of Complication arising from Body

Piercing and Tattooing

2.4     Theoretical Framework

2.5     Empirical Studies

2.6     Summary of the Literature Review



3.1     Research Design

3.2     Area of Study

3.3     Target Population

3.4     Sampling Technique

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection

3.6     Validity of Instrument

3.7     Reliability of Instrument

3.8     Sample size

3.9     Ethical Consideration

3.10   Method of Data Collection

3.11   Method of Data Analysis



4.1     Result

4.2     Analysis of Research Questions



5.1     Discussion of Major findings

5.2     Implications of findings

5.3     Summary

5.4     Conclusion

5.5     Recommendations

5.6     Limitation of Study

5.7     Suggestions for Further Study


Appendix 1



This study was carried out to determine the awareness of health risks associated with body piercing and tattooing among undergraduate students in Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT).  Five objectives were set (to ascertain the students awareness of health risks associated with body piercing and tattooing, to determine the students practice of body piercing and tattooing, to determine students reason for body piercing and tattooing, to determine students attitude towards body piercing and tattooing, to determine influence of knowledge on their practice). 342 students were used, 379 questionnaires were developed and shared by the researcher according to the stated objectives.  The study showed that 258 (75.4%) of students are aware that tattoo/body piercing can constitute a health risk while 84 (24.6%) are not aware. 142 (55.0%) of the respondent endorsed HIV/AIDs as the health risk, 72 (27.9%) tetanus, 10 (3.9%) hepatitis, 33 (12.8%) pruritus (itching) while 86 (33.3%) skin injury as the health injury that can result from body piercing/tattooing. 69 (20.2%) have tattoo/body pierced while 273 (79:8%) neither tattooed/pierced.  The major reason for students body piercing and tattooing were for self identity.  235 (68.7) of the respondent consider tattoo/body piercing indecent.  However, knowledge greatly affect their practice, on this not health education, workshops seminar on health risk associated with body piercing and tattooing were the recommendations made by the researcher.



  • Background of Study

Body piercing and tattooing or skin art as it is commonly called seems to be the latest fashion trend worldwide (Montgomery and Parks, 2007).  Skin art dates back to biblical times when God gave mark to Cain. Studies showed that tattoo served a variety of purpose like distinguishing mark of a slave or a ruler, also in Prison Camps where complex languages were developed using tattoo as symbols, from there it progressed to modern body art which has become avenue for self expression and a permanent sense of self worth and Pride (Robert and Ryan 2002).

According to (Galle, Mancusi, Onofrio, Visciano, &Alfano 2011), the Italian ministry of health issued safe practice guidelines that apply to tattoo and piercing facilities, many regions have since adopted these practice and established local regulations, many professional piercer and tattooist have formed association with health workers to promote sage body modification.  Despite this untrained personnel practice, body art out of unregulated shops, jewery stores and even at home providing tattoo consumers with ready access to these services.  (Galle et al, 2011). Considering the widespread practice of tattooing and body piecing and increase number of potential complications associated to the practice, it is important to communicate its consumers the hazards and to seek medical help when complication arise during and after the practice.  Use of needle and other piercing instruments allows mucocutaneous transmission of infection which ranges from local to systemic infections like toxic shock syndrome and bacteremia, as well as life-threatening ones like septic arthritis, endocarditis, glomerulanephitisetc (Roberts and Ryan 2002). Tatanus, callulitis, keloid, bleeding, haematoma are other risk factors.  As a result of these risk factors, health education should therefore be channeled towards enhancing the knowledge of tattoo and body piercing consumer on the risk factors.


  • State of Problem

In Enugu State University of Science and Technology about 10 – 15 student was seen with tattoo and 3 of them living within the vicinity of the researcher.  This was why the institution was used for this study.  Body piercing and tattooing have recently gained increasing popularity with the youth rating highest in acquiring it.  Consequently those in colleges and higher institutions are often the victims of these associated risk with minimal or no knowledge about the risk factors.  The above mentioned institution is one of the famous higher institution in Enugu State with many young people, it is densely populated with youths from different ethnicity and social backgrounds which serve for proper generalization.


  • Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to assess the awareness of undergraduates on the health risk associated with body piercing and tattooing in Enugu State University of Science and Technology.


  • Objectives of the Study
  • To ascertain the awareness of the health risks associated with body piercing and tattooing among undergraduates of Enugu State.
  • To determine the students major source of information on the health risk.
  • To determine their attitude towards body piercing and tattooing.
  • To determine influence of knowledge on their practice of body piercing and tattooing.
    • Research Question
  • What do the students know on the health risk associated with body piercing and tattooing?
  • What are the student’s sources of information on the health risks?
  • What are the student attitude towards body piercing and tattooing?
  • What are the influence of knowledge on their practice.


  • Significance of the Study

This study will help increase the knowledge of students and the public at large on the health risks associated with body piercing and tattooing which will make its consumer to be ready for the complications and seek medical attention if it occurs.  This study will also make tattoo consumers to seek a trained personnel whenever they intend doing it.  Above all, it will serve as a reference for subsequent studies on related topics.


  • Scope of the Study

This study is confined to determine the awareness of health risks related to body piercing and tattooing among undergraduates students of Enugu State University of science and Technology.  It is delimited to complications that may rise, cure and/or treatment of those complications are not involved.


  • Operations Definition of Terms

Body Piercing

For males, any making of hole in the body including earlobe.

For females, any making of hole is the body excluding the ear lobe.


Any picture or deign on the body including tribal marks done for aesthetic reasons.

Health Risk

Complications emanating from body piercing and tattooing.


Bringing the unknown to known.  It means disclosing knowledge on risk factors, associated with piercing and tattooing.


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