Page Length: 53

Size: 145 KB

Format: PDF & Word




The bacteriological status of soil environment polluted with urine was analyzed, using standard microbiological methods.

The identification test of bacteria revealed the isolation of proteus spp. Pseudmonas spp, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteria and Staphylococcus aureus from the contaminated soil. Bacillus spp, Pseudomonas spp and Staphylococcus aureus were obtained from the polluted bathroom and klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp, and Escherichia coli were isolated from the cleaned bathroom. Pathogenicity test carried out revealed that while all isolates from the polluted bathroom except E. coli to be pathogenic, only proteus from contaminated soil was found to be pathogenic amongst the isolates from contaminated and uncontaminated soil. Susceptibility tests from contaminated and uncontaminated soil susceptibility test revealed that among the disinfectants used for the study namely, Detol, Izal, Lysol and jik, Lysol was found to be effective against all the test pathogens. The study showed the diversity of pathogens in polluted environment and the efficacy of Lysol in decontaminating the polluted environment that harbour pathogenic organisms, but can be controlled through disinfection.



Title page                                                              i

Certification                                                           ii

Dedication                                                             iii

Acknowledgement                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                v

Table of content                                                     vi



1.1 Introduction                                                     1

1.2 Aim of project                                                  3



Literature review                                                    4


2.1   Sample collection                                            17

2.2.1  Nutrient agar                                                18

2.2.2  Macconkey agar                                            18

2.3.1   Isolation of total hetetrophic bacteria count     19

2.4   Identification of bacteria isolates                       20

2.5  Gram reaction                                                 20

2.6  Biochemical characterization of the isolates          21

2.6.2  Oxidase test                                                 21

2.6.3  Indole test                                                   22

2.6.4  Motility test                                                  23

2.6.5   Citrate test                                                  23

2.6.6  Spore stain test                                            24

2.6.7  Mannitol fermentation (Sugar)                        25

2.6.8  Coagulase                                                    25

2.6.9  Lactose fermentation                                     26

2.6.10  Urease test                                                 26

2.7.1  Pathogenicity test                                          27  Medium preparation                                    27  Method of culture                                       28

2.7.2  Antimirobial susceptibility testing                            28  Prparation of antibaceterial disc                    29






3.1 Count of distinct colonies of the isolates                      30

3.1.1  Microbial load of contaminated soil sample               30

3.1.2  Bacterial count for sample B                                  31

3.1.3  Microbial load for sample C (contaminated

Bathroom)                                                   31

3.1.4  Microbial load for sample D (cleaned bathroom  32

3.3   Microbiological analysis                                    33

3.3.1  Result of Pathogenicity Tests                           33

3.3.2  Result of Antimicrobial susceptibility                 35



4.1 Discussion                                                        38

4.2 Conclusion                                                       43

4.3 Recommendation                                              44

References                                                      45





Urine is a liquid waste product from the kidney of both animals and humans. It is collected in the bladder and excreted through the urethra. As a waste liquid product, it contains some dissolved substances such as ammonia, urea, uric acid, and creatinine. These constitute the organic solids in the urine. Urine also contains inorganic dissolved substances such as sodium chloride, calcium, potassium, phosphate and sulfates (Cobire and Wewedo, 2002).


The dissolved substances in the urine can be utilized by microorganisms of various groups as nutrients whenever urine finds its way into the environment. This is evidenced by the fact that urine polluted environments usually have very strong odour, signifying that the biological oxygen demand (BOD) is high. This phenomenon is observe in toilets, bathrooms, street corners and fallow grounds. (Deni and Pennick, 1999).

The different groups of microorganisms can represent different microbial functions and activities. Some can be harmful relating to public health risk, or beneficial relating to positive economic value. Urine leach into ground and surface waters often with much of the nitrogen intact. When microorganisms in lakes and other surface waters consume the nitrogen. It results into a great bloom of growth. When this dies and decomposes, it pulls oxygen from the water or euthrophies, which can suffocate fish and other aquatic life. Underground nitrogen can seep into drinking water, posing a potential health hazard.


Urine contains micro pollutants such as synthetic hormones, pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, that  is mainly excreted via urine (Alder, 2002) and may be harmful to the ecosystems and human health (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Today, many micro pollutants reach the aquatic environments because their degradation in waste water treatment plant is poor (Barker and Jones, 2005).

More than just dirt hanging around the environment especially urine polluted is unhealthy.

This work plans to asses the level of bacterial building in urine contaminated campus environments and thus suggest  control measures to prevent the invasion of our environment by bacterial pathogens especially the campus female hostel bathrooms which are usually polluted with urine.


The aim of this work is to isolate bacteria from urine contaminated environments in additions, this work would attempt to find out whether the contaminated environments harbour pathogenic bacteria and thus, pose hazard to health.



DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Administrator (Online)
Hello and welcome. I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.