A survey was conducted in Oyo State on ethnoveterinary practice used in rural areas against parasitic diseases of ruminants. Cattle, sheep and goats have the ability to convert plant carbohydrates and proteins into available nutrients for human use, making otherwise unusable land productive. However, proper care of the land and its grazing animals requires a sound understanding of ruminant nutrition. This research work provides managers with tools and references to consider biological and climatological variables and make decisions that ensure the ecological and economic viability of a grass-based ruminant livestock operation. The result revealed the effect of bilirubin on ruminant animals both sheep and goat on the ethnoveterinary practice by the rural people of Oyo State. This article presents an overview of haematological parameters and factors affecting their values. Blood act as a pathological reflector of the status of the exposed animals to toxicants and other conditions. The examination of blood provides the opportunity to clinically investigate the presence of metabolites and other constituents in the body of animals and it plays a vital role in the physiological, nutritional and pathological status of an animal. Blood constituents change in relation to the physiological status of an animal. These changes are often caused by several factors; some of which are genetic and others, non-genetic. Age, sex, breed and management systems are among the factors that influence blood-based parameters of farm animals.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………vi
1.0 Introduction to ruminant animal 1
1.1 The value of grassland agriculture 1
1.2 Types of ruminant animals 2
1.3 Factors affecting ruminant production 3
1.4 Disease of pest of ruminant animal 4
1.5 Statement of problems 7
1.6 Significance of the study 7
1.7 Justification of study 8
1.8 Objectives of the study 8
CHAPTER TWO: BLOOD
2.0 Blood components 9
2.1 Disease of blood 10
2.2 Blood cell formation in certain teleost fishes 10
2.3 Hermatological parameter 11
2.4 Biomaker of oxidation stress 13
2.5 Serum biochemistry 16
2.6 Contribution 21
2.7 Laboratory tests 21
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Study location 22
3.2 Study design 23
3.3 Study period 23
3.4 Analytical methods 23
3.5 Analytical procedures 23
3.6 Determination of serum biochemistry methods 24
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 26
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Summary 43
5.1 Conclusion 43
5.2 Recommendations 44
LIST OF TABLES
4.1 Information on ruminant in the age range of 9 month to 1 year 26
4.2 Mean of weight of breed (Goat) in the age range of 9 months to 1 year 28
4.3 Mean of weight of breed (Sheep) in the age range of 9 months to 1 year 29
4.4 Calculation of mean on male Goat 30
4.5 Calculation of mean on female Goat 31
4.6 Calculation of mean on male sheep 32
4.7 Calculation of mean on female sheep 33
4.8 Calculation of the mean of weight of ruminant in the age range of
1 year to 2 years 34
4.9 Mean of weight of (Goat) in the age range of 1 year to 2 years 36
4.10 Mean of weight of breed (sheep) in the age range of 1 year to 2 years 37
4.11 Calculation of mean on Male goat 38
4.12 Calculation of mean on Female goat 39
4.13 Mean of weight on male sheep in the age range of 1 year to 2 years 40
4.14 Calculation of mean of weight on female sheep in the age range of
1 year to 2 year 41
4.15 Information on ruminant in the age range of 2 years to 3 years 42
1.0 INTRODUCTION TO RUMINANT ANIMAL
Grazing animals are very important to agriculture. Of course, they provide meat, milk, and fiber. But grazing animals also can be incorporated into a crop rotation to take advantage of nutrient cycling. They can be utilized to control weeds or to harvest crop residues. Grazing animals can also be an added source of income, diversifying farm enterprises and thereby rendering a farm more sustainable from an economic point of view.
Much of what we understand about livestock nutrition has been developed from studies and experience with confinement feeding operations, where concentrated nutrients in the form of grain, oilseed products, and harvested forages are delivered to animals in a dry lot. These types of practices leave out many of the biological and climatologically variables that accompany grazing situations: plant species, forage stage of maturity, soil fertility and water holding capacity, annual and seasonal precipitation and mean temperature, etc. As they plan for the nutritional needs of their grazing animals, glazier’s need to take each of these variables into consideration. This provides livestock managers with the tools and references to consider all the variables and make informed decisions that ensure the ecological and economic viability of a livestock operation.
1.1 THE VALUE OF GRASSLAND AGRICULTURE
Forages are plants, either wild or tame, that are consumed as livestock feed. Grasses, clovers and other forbs (broadleaf vascular plants), shrubs, and even some trees serve as forage for livestock, depending on the ecology of the region. Arable land in the United States, or land that is capable of being cultivated, accounts for only forty-three percent of the country’s agricultural area FAO, (2002). Arable cropland can be rotated into pasture to take advantage of the soil-building characteristics of perennial grass ecosystems. Also, perennial grasses tend to positively affect water quality by serving as buffers in riparian zones and increasing the water-holding capacity of soils. Perennial grasses and forbs as a component of annual cropping systems also help to reduce fuel and chemical use, allowing some fields to be in pasture or hayfield for several years between annual crop rotations. Savory coined the term “brittle environment” to denote ecosystems that receive either low annual precipitation or experience unpredictable and sporadic precipitation. Savory and Butterfield, (1998) these environments are usually characterized by shallow soils, limited moisture, and drought-tolerant perennial grasses, forbs, and shrubs. Brittle environments
respond very slowly to ecological disturbance. Savory has suggested that the proper distribution, timing, and intensity of grazing in these regions can have a significant and positive effect on the health of brittle environments
The principal attribute describing grassland ecosystems and ruminant nutrition is interconnectivity. Grasslands and ruminant animals are intrinsically related, and practice that impact one will necessarily impact the other. From the soil the system derives water, nutrients, structural support, and temperature buffering. Soil populations of microorganisms recycle nutrients and make otherwise unavailable nutrients available for plant uptake. Microorganisms also populate the rumens of grazing ruminant livestock and wildlife, performing symbiotic duties within the animal’s body. Animals occupy a niche and complete the nutrient cycle by returning up to 90 percent of ingested nutrients back to the soil in the form of feces, urine, and their own bodies after death. Humans play an important role in this system as well. We engage in agriculture and derive food and fiber from the system for our consumption.
Cattle, sheep, and goats have the ability to convert plant carbohydrates and proteins into available nutrients for human use, and therefore render productive vast portions of otherwise unusable land. Grasslands offer humans a nutritious supply of meat and milk. Many farmers and ranchers have changed production practices to take advantage of this natural process, bypassing the energy intensive grain-fed operations that have dominated American livestock production for the past several decades. Products from grass-finished livestock are higher in omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated lanolin acid than conventionally raised counterparts. Additionally, these products may reduce cholesterol and reduce the incidence of certain types of cancer.
1.2 TYPES OF RUMINANT ANIMALS
The types of ruminant animals are listed below, which are;
Cattle breeds: breeds of locally available cattle in Nigeria are basically indigenous and are grouped as the Zebu and Taurine. The zebus as locally recognized by the cattle rearers in northern part of Nigeria include Bunaji, Rahaji, SokotoGudali, Adamawa Gudali, Azawak and
Wadara. The Taurines on other hand include Keteku, N’dama and Kuri. The zebus are characterized by long horns, large humps and tallness, against the Taurines that are humpless, short-horned and shot-legged.
Sheep: Nigeria has a population of about 8 to13.2million sheep out of which about 3.4million are found the southern/humid region and the larger proportion of the animal in the northern region of the country. Available breeds of sheep in the country are mainly indigenous and these are the West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep, Balami, Uda and Yankasa. Out of these four major of breeds of sheep in the country, the WAD breed is common to southern region against the widespread of Balami, Uda and Yakansa breeds in the northern region of the country.
Goats: on the other hand has a population of about 22 to 26million in Nigeria with rough estimates of 6.6million of them in southern region and 20million in the northern region of the country. The breeds of goats in Nigeria are largely indigenous; and the common ones include the West African Dwarf (WAD) goat, Sahel/desert goat- known as West African Long-Legged goat; and Sokoto Red/Maradi.
Camels: Camels are of importance in North Africa because they are well adapted to withstand desert conditions that prevail in the Sahara, the Sahel, and the Horn of Africa. The camels used in Africa are the Arabian single-humped camel. Some of these animals were imported into southern Africa, notably the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and Namibia, in the early part of the last century, and their descendants are still found in the region, where they are sometimes used for tourism.
1.3 FACTORS AFFECTING RUMINANT PRODUCTION
The parasites affecting the various domestic animals are more or less related. Since the domestic ruminants are closely related to one another, it is not surprising that they harbor the same or closely related species of parasites, which produce similar diseases. Parasitic diseases more or less like those occurring in domestic ruminants are known to affect swine also. The domestic
Ruminants and swine are therefore more often common hosts of certain groups of parasites and associated diseases than are domestic ruminants and horses, or horses and swine, or all of these animals together. The parasites and parasitic diseases of dogs and cats discussed in this article, though related to some of those affecting farm animals, are not transmissible to them. The parasitic diseases of domestic birds, with the exception of coiccidiosis, which affects poultry as
well as food animals and pet animals, are caused by organisms most of which are not closely related to those that cause disease in livestock, and they are not discussed in this article.
The severity of the parasitic diseases depends in general on the number of parasites present in the affected host animal. As a rule the presence of relatively small numbers of parasites produces no noticeable symptoms or only slight ones; moderate numbers produce symptoms that are more or less pronounced; and large numbers usually cause severe symptoms. It must be borne in mind, however, that light or moderate symptoms may later become pronounced or even severe. Such an increase in the severity of symptoms in parasitic infections is an outward expression of increasing damage sustained by the host, resulting as a rule from an increase in the number of causative organisms present. In coiccidiosis this increase results partly from the multiplication of coccidia within the host and partly from the intake of additional infective organisms from the outside. In the other diseases discussed, the increase in the number of offending organism’s results solely from the continued intake of infection.
1.4 DISEASE OF PEST OF RUMINANT ANIMAL
The pests affect skins and hairs of the animals. Some like ticks suck the blood of the animal. Mange appeared to be the most common pests in these study areas. It causes serious havoc to the skin of the animal caused by mites which eat up the hair on the skin of the animal. This pest caused great economic loss to the skin of the animal by causing disvalue to the affected animal.
It can be treated using:
i. Shaft of palm kernel seed to scrap the body.
ii. It can also be treated using emiojo grind and add kerosene and use husk of maize to rub the body.
iii. Roasted water yam mixed with something can be used to scrub the body of the affected goat with mange.
iv. Palm kernel frond (aran) and palm kernel seed oil to scrub the body of the affected goat.
Mange poses the most pest affecting ruminants in Ekiti state. The result agrees with the finding of Kolawole et al. (2007) and Osho (2000), which uses palm oil to treat scabies (mange). Mange is caused by mites and sacroptic mange is the most common pest in Ekiti State. Palm oil is being used to treat mange in which the chemical ingredient inside it will react against the parasite causing the infection, thereby causing the regrowth of the lost hair and normal skin in the
affected goat. Sarcoptic mange can be transmitted to humans; hence it has to be prevented at all times to prevent the transmission
Lice can be treated using Ficusexasperata and also palm kernel seed oil to scrub the whole body and the body will be shinning. Tick also affect goat and we can use pin to pinch it off or kerosene on the body. The tick can also attach to the eyes and it can be removed with hand/pin. Parasite in the hoof of the goat can be cured using kerosene and it can cause the goat to be limping and the one inside the nose can be cured using Nicotianatabacum.
Tick and lice are vectors of diseases (Anaplasmosis and Rickettsal diseases) and they causes irritation, sores, wounds and provides means for secondary infections. Lice and tick can be treated using F. exasperate and hand picking, when placed in the house of the affected animal. This can be due to some ingredients or chemical constituents from the plant that will react against the lice and ticks, which will cause them to be scared away. Lice can also be treated using palm kernel seed oil, in which the chemical ingredient will react against the lice and kill it and cause the normal resurgence of the skin function and outlook and make them to shine better. Lice could also affect human hair. Other medicinal plants that could be used to treat this tick and lice include Guireriasenegalensis, K. senegalensis and Nicotianatabacum. Tick can be hand-picked or to use pin. Tsetse fly is also a vector that causes trypanosomiasis that affect cattle. There can be introduction of integrated parasite management/integrated vector management in the treatment of these parasites.
38 types of ruminant diseases were identified by the respondents in the study area. The diseases were categorised into nutritional, microbial and environmental diseases. Of the 30 diseases conditions diarrhea was the most prevalent and caused serious economic losses. It can be treated by:
i. Using Ocimumgratissmum.
ii. Using Sand from the stream to rub the vulva to stop the stooling.
iii. Using Chromolaenaodorata leave squeeze it and give it into drinking.
Gür S and Albayrak H,(2010) opined that peste des petits ruminants(PPR) are a highly contagious viral disease of predominantly goats, but also sheep and some captive wild ruminant species. This disease is of increasing importance in Africa where there is heavy reliance on subsistence farming for food supply. During 2009 PPR outbreaks were reported in Tanzania,
leaving only one country, Mozambique, between a PPR affected country and South Africa. There is therefore a serious risk that PPR may spread to South
Africa. PPR does not currently occur in South Africa and our small stock herds are therefore completely susceptible to this disease. The virus spreads by means of aerosol, as well as objects whereby the virus may be transmitted from one animal to another.
All animals in a flock may be affected during a PPR outbreak, and between 20 to 90% of animals may die. Clinical signs include:
1. Fever, depression, loss of appetite;
2. Discharges of the nose and eyes that are clear, but become yellow (purulent) due to secondary bacterial infections;
3. Crusting around the nose resulting in the blocking of nostrils and difficulty in breathing;
4. Matting together of the eyelids;
5. Reddened mucous membranes of the eyes and mouth, followed by the development of ulcers on the gums, dental pad, palate, lips, inner sides of the cheeks, and the top of the tongue;
6. Salivation with a bad smelling breath;
7. Diarrhoea that starts off as soft faeces that becomes watery, bad smelling, with blood streaks and dead pieces of the lining of the intestines;
8. Pneumonia that presents as an increased breathing rate, outstretched neck and head, nostrils that are widely opened, a tongue that hangs out of the mouth, abnormal breathing sounds, and coughing;
9. Later in the disease, raised skin lesions develop on the lips and around the muzzle;
10. Abortion (loss of pregnancy); and
11. Death within seven to ten days.
Ogunsanmi et al, (2003) sees effective control of PPR, should this viral disease spread to South Africa, will only be possible if the disease is quickly diagnosed and control measures are put in place to prevent the spread of the disease. If any of your small stock shows any of the above signs, immediately contact your private veterinarian or state veterinarian. The veterinarians will assist in taking samples from both live and dead animals in order to diagnose the cause of the clinical signs.
In cattle, the most susceptible species, classical signs of the disease include fever, erosive lesions in the mouth, discharge from the nose and eyes, profuse diarrhoea and dehydration, often leading to death within 10 to 15 days. In other species rinderpest may show milder clinical signs.
1.5 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Heavy metals such as lead, copper, zinc and iron may be present in an environment through natural and anthropogenic causes and their presence in trace concentrations is important both to the animal and plant development. On the contrary, if the concentration of these heavy metals surpasses the maximum admissible levels as stipulated by various organizations such as World Health Organization (WHO), American Public Health Association (APHA, 1989), then plant and animal developments may be retarded because of malfunctions caused by bioconcentration of the heavy metals. For instance, lead accumulation in the body adversely affects many enzymatic systems causing lead poisoning of the heme system. High levels of iron in the body can cause a condition known as hemochromatosis, affecting the liver, pancreas and heart (Kaplan and Pesce, 1989).
These environmental pollutants are capable of increasing or decreasing the blood properties such as the serum biochemistry which could translate to organs or tissues malfunctioning.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
When hemoglobin is degraded, the heme portion is converted to bilirubin, which is conjugated in the liver and excreted in bile. Some conjugated bilirubin is filtered by the glomerulus and excreted in urine. In dogs, but not cats, the kidney can metabolize hemoglobin to bilirubin and secrete it. Dipstick reagent pads use diazonium salts to create a color change and are more sensitive to conjugated bilirubin than unconjugated bilirubin. Bilirubinuria occurs when conjugated bilirubin exceeds the renal threshold as with liver disease or hemolysis.
Diseases that frequently result in hepatic failure in horses include Theiler’s disease, Tyzzer’s disease, pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis, hepatic lipidosis, suppurative cholangitis or cholangiohepatitis, cholelithiasis, and chronic active hepatitis. Obstructive disorders, aflatoxicosis, leukoencephalomalacia, pancreatic disease, kleingrass or alsike clover poisoning, portal caval shunts, hepatic abscess, and perinatal herpesvirus 1 infections sporadically result in hepatic failure. Less frequently, hepatic failure is related by endotoxemia, steroid administration,
inhalant anesthesia, systemic granulomatous disease, and drug-induced amyloidosis, hyperammonemia in Morgan foals, parasite damage, iron toxicity, or following neonatal isoerythrolysis.
1.7 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about a quarter of the diseases facing mankind today occur due to prolonged exposure to environmental pollution (Pruss-Üstun and Corvalán, 2006; Kimani, 2007). The 10 general beliefs that wastes are sometimes hazardous to health cannot be overemphasized. Dump sites are a common site in Nairobi and other cities in Africa. The sites are not only a site for sore eyes but a health hazard. The soil around the dump is usually rich in toxic heavy metals as a result of the dumped waste. This soil is used by the people living around the dump for planting vegetables and fruits. These plants bio-accumulates heavy metals from the soil and when they are eaten by human beings and animals, the heavy metal accumulate in the body with serious health effects (USEPA, 2002; UNDP, 2006; Rotich et al, 2006). The water sources around the dumpsite also get contaminated with the heavy metals as a result of leaching and from rain water which drains into them having passed through the dump. This water is then used for irrigating crops around and domestic use including drinking and may directly cause heavy metal poisoning to the consumer. When used for bathing and laundry the water may cause skin infections and allergies. The dump site also acts as a breeding ground for disease vectors causing serious health problems in the neighbourhood (Etekpo, 1999; Eddy et al, 2006). Hazardous waste can cause and has caused pollution, damage to health and even death. Exposure to multiple chemical combinations in populations living near waste dump sites has led to a series of human health disorders (Alimba et al, 2006).
1.8 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To determine the concentration levels of some serum biochemistry in serum samples of ruminant around Awotan community.
To determine the concentrations of bilirubin in serum samples of ruminant in Awotan community.
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