Page Length: 45

Size: 48 KB

Format: PDF & Word



This research work based on budgeting and effective management of public institutions in Nigeria: A study of Anambra State Ministry of work and Housing, Anambra. According to research budgeting plays an invaluable role in our public institutions. However this Administrative tool has hardly been used widely by the institutions and as a result the desired transformation or change which budget would have effected in the society has not been achieved. The researcher used both primary and secondary data source and one hundred and fifth four (154) questionnaires was distributed. The primary data included the use of questionnaire, observation and interview. The researcher spent some time to mingle with the staff of ministry of work and housing, Anamba whereby certain observation on the study were taken note of. The secondary sources of data collection enable the researcher to read as much material that has been written on the subject matter as possible. It enable the researcher to draw the theoretical framework research questions e.t.c. the research design was essentially descriptive to ease the study. Data were presented, analyzed, findings were made which included notably that ministry of work and housing Anambra carried out routine or yearly budgeting exercises which were not fully implemented. There has been frequent administrative change in the ministry and that had affected budgeting adversely, budgeting implementation is not taken seriously by the ministry. Based on the findings, recommendations were accordingly made. They were that budgeting should not be a mere yearly ritual exercise devoid of seriousness and commitment, that administrator of the ministry should not be charged too often to avoid it’s adverse affects. And public influence on the budgeting should be encouraged and that the implementation of budget should be given priority that budgeting enhance the effective management of public institution in Anambra State.




Cover Page                                                                                        i

Title Page                                                                                                    ii

Declaration                                                                                        iii

Certification                                                                                                iv

Approval Page                                                                                             v

Dedication                                                                                         vi

Acknowledgements                                                                                     vii

Abstract                                                                                                      viii

Table of Contents                                                                              x




  • Background to the Study 1
  • Statement of the Problem 2
  • Research Questions 5
  • Purpose of the Study 6
  • Hypotheses 6
  • Significance of the Study           7
  • Scope of the Study 8
  • Limitations of the Study 8
  • Operationalization/Definition of Terms 9
  • Organization of the Study 9




2.1 Literature Review                                                                         12

2.1.1 Government Revenue and Expenditure                             29

2.1.2 Modern day Government become involved                       30

2.1.3 Annual Estimates                                                                      31

2.1.4 Collection of Government Revenue                                           31

2.1.5 Government Expenditure                                                           32

2.1.6 Cost Consciousness in spending Public Funds                            33

2.1.7 The Budget Cycle                                                                      34

2.1.8 Budget Preparation/Submission                                        34

2.2 Theoretical Framework                                                                36



Research Methodology

3.1 Research design                                                                                     38

3.2 Area of the Study                                                                         38

3.3 Population of the Study                                                                38

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques                                       39

3.5 Methods of Data Collection                                                          40

3.6 Instruments for Data Collection                                                    40

3.7 Reliability of the Instrument                                                         41

3.8 Validity of the Instrument                                                             41

3.9 Distribution and Retrieval of Instrument                              42

3.10 Methods of Data Analysis                                                          42



Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1 Data Presentation                                                                         43

4.2 Analysis of Research Questions                                                    43

4.3 Testing of Hypotheses                                                                  50

4.4 Interpretation of Results                                                               57



Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary                                                                                               58

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                            59

5.3 Recommendations                                                                        59

References                                                                               60

Appendix                                                                                 63



1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

This study is based on budgeting and effective management of public institutions. Putting into consideration that all public or private enterprises deals with acquisition and use of material (Human and equipment) which should be effectively and efficiently utilized more maximum output such task falls for planning and controls. Budgets have been described by different scholar in their own perspective and understanding, according to Henry as cited. 2011:6) he said that many to problems of public Administration that concept budgeting have the longest and major impact on the filled of administration.

Also according to read and swain (2011:4) see it that public budgeting in concerned with the planned acquisition and use of resources by public entities and involves the decision of what revenue to collect and what expenditure to make. That is to say concrete decision must be reach in order to avoid great loss, management must work toward achieving this, both in human-capital and material as well.

However, budget has a great impact on the behavior of public officer in Nigeria. According to Olewel (2017:392) state that every January in Nigeria civil and public servant show particular kinds of interest from the budget, they can know what benefits they are to derive from the helps to curtle the expenditures of government and monitoring it’s GDP growth based on its national income, this is done by the use of financial mechanized known as tax.

According to Hyde (2015:1) a budget is essentially a framework linking specific spending objectives with their associated cost and is therefore applicable to any situation where spending objectives have to be determined. This goes to show activities which comprises other components for financial management in the public sector related to the budget.

Coe also state that, it is an accounting instrument that holds government officials responsible for both the expenditure and revenue of the programmes over which they exercise control.

Similarly budget from the above shows that it is used to determine the purchasing power of government and it’s expenditure in order to achieves economic growth and development. It is also compel government officials responsible for it’s jurisdictional expenditure since it is under their control.

The inherent value or benefits in budgeting has not been fully drawn by our country in that the nation is still socio-economically backward, for instance the battle against poverty has not been actually started in our rural communities are in deplorable shape, the health situation has not improved, our educational policy has not given us any cause to cheer the standard of living of the average Nigerian is nothing to write home about, our security  matter in various state precisely in our state has no heading solution. All these are sufficient indications that our national budget leaves much to be desired, looking at the word of schick (2015) budget tends to grossly over estimates administrative capacity to calculated programme effectiveness and vastly under estimate. The important of political and technological constraints,  the views has been shared by the researcher as one of the major problems observed that the most public officials has been unable to make the calculation needed for their respective departmental policies. It’s proposed objectives nationwide thereby contributing highly to societal break down of laws and order.

It is the aim of government through its budgetary process to achieve the desired plan as designed in the budge both socially, politically, educationally and economically for the benefit of all the societies, the above problems which are obvious prompted the researcher to carry out an investigation on the budgeting and effective management of public institutions with the federal ministry and housing Anambra as case study.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It has become a normal thing in our administrative system whereby the president mount and read to the hearing of all Nigeria fund allocated to various sectors in our nation and to no avail nothings is to be showed regarding to such fund released for project in those sectors and no actions is to taken against those in authority responsible for that.

According to Nwoko, a huge sum of money has been spend outside budgeting allocations over the years such as unproductive and highly inflationary programmes such as finding unending political transitions democracy or fighting other peoples war.

The role of the public contributes small measures to the problem in the budgetary, in institution they have always shown interest in the budget for the year but the matter is different when budget is sent to the national house for considerations and approval.

1.3 Research Questions

The following questions have been drawn as a guide to the study.

  1. To what extent does the administration adhere to the budgeting process?
  2. How does the ministry implement her budgetary allocation in order to meet people’s aspiration.
  3. Does the ministry of work and housing Anambra prepare budgets for use by the ministry.

1.4 Purpose of the Study

The research work has been designed to look into budgeting and effective management of the public institutions in Nigeria and Anambra ministry of work and housing as case study. The main purpose of the study is:

  1. The researcher seeks to know how extent administration adheres to the budgeting process.
  2. The researcher has the obligation to find out the ministry implement her budgetary allocation in order to meet people aspiration.
  3. It seeks to determine whether the ministry of work and housing Anambra prepare budgets for use by the ministry.
    • Significance of the Study

The study has a lot of significance in that it represents a symbol of academic achievement as having contributed to the already records of research in social science: Again the study shall be useful to the colleagues of the research and the entire students of field of management science as they shall resort to in their various works on the same topic of study in future.

The research should be relevant to public administration in general and budget experts in various ministries and department as it shall assist them in caring about their budgeting duties.


  • Scope of the Study

The study covers the ministry of work and housing Anambra, members of staff of all cadres of the ministry participated in the same way.

All units of the ministry and department participated in the study. the Researcher is so overwhelming as a result of expression made by the staff.

  • Limitations of the Study

The researcher has encountered some difficulties in the course of the worker some of them are been discuss. Some of the department units were not open to disclose some relevant information to the researcher. The staff claimed that disclosing such information would be an offence.

Some of the respondents also displayed non-certain attitude to the questionnaire this lead to asking question in order to avoid collecting it. Time factor was another constrain, the space provide to carry out the research has been limited for a more through job, more time would have be allowed.

The researcher has to attend lectures as well as well as carrying out the work also financial difficulties is not left out because information needed for this research need money.

1.9 Operationaliation/Definition of Terms

  1. Accountability: According to bayo (2015) it is the efficient adaptation of government policies by experienced civil servant through paper utilization of management system and styles in administration of material and financial resources.
  2. 2. Budget Negotiation: This is a process of arring at mutual agreement on the provision of a contrite. The principle of negotiation applied in several context and situation.
  3. 3. PPBS: Planning programming budgeting system which is a technique use to analyze activities in strategic terms.
  4. 4. ZZBB: Zero base budget which is a technique of evaluating from time to time the continuous reference of ongoing programme.

1.10 Organization of the Study

According to research budgeting as planned acquisition of resources and use of resources by public entities and involves the decision of what revenue to collect and what expenditure to make. Budgeting plays an invaluable role in public institutions. But it hardly be used widely by the institution and as a result the desired change which budget would have effected in the society has not been achieved. Research has provide that budget in Anambra ministry of work and housing carried out routine or yearly budget exercise which were not fully implemented.

Furthermore each chapters of this research work is squeezed to deal with different areas relating to budget formulation and implementation.

Chapter one deliberated on various problem culminating as a result of improper formulation and implementation of vibrante strategy for ensuring adequate supply of budget for effective management of public institutions.

In addition, a lot of related literature has reviewed in chapter two, with the support of framework which give the researcher a guide to know the relevant of budgeting in public institutions. Chapter three also deals on research design and it’s methodology, with four which focus data presentation and it’s Analysis.

Finally the researchers conclusion with recommendations show that the public institutions should endeavors to avoid frequent change of administrations to disruption of the budgeting process and emphasis should be laid on budget implement and monitoring


DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Administrator (Online)
Hello and welcome. I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.