TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Approval page v
Table of Contents viii-ix
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Research Questions 3
1.4 Purpose of the Study 4
1.5 Significance of the Study 4
1.6 Scope of the Study 5
1.7 Limitations of the Study 5
1.8 Definition of Terms 6
1.9 Organizations of the Study 6
Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
2.1 Literature Review 7
2.2 Theoretical Framework 27
Research Design and Methodology
3.1 Research Design 34
3.2 Area of the Study 35
3.3 Population of the Study 35
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 35
3.5 Method of Data Collection 36
3.6 Instruments for Data Collection 37
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument 38
3.8 Validity of the Instrument 38
3.9 Distribution and Retrieval of Instruments 39
3.10 Method of Data Analysis 39
Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Data Presentation 40
4.2 Analysis of Research Question 42
4.3 Interpretation of Results 49
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 52
5.2 Conclusion 54
5.3 Recommendation 54
Appendix A 58
Appendix B 59
This research work tired to evaluate the extent of devilment in Co-operative society and Youth Empowerment in in rural development (A Study of Ohaukwu Local Government Area, in a depressed economy like Nigeria. a closer and pragmatic approach was used by using Nigeria Association of Small scale Industrialist (NASSI) Enugu Sate Chapter. Nassi has been seen as one of the nation’s governmental agency involved in manpower development and training and financing small- scale industrialists. a lot of literatures by different authors were consulted in reviewing the related literatures based on these subheadings. a. Meaning and history of co-operative society in Nigeria. b. Meaning and Functions of co-operative society. c. Qualities of an entrepreneur. d. Activities of NASSI. e. Problems of NASSI. Nevertheless Nigerian association of small scale industrialists (NASSI) is faced by some problems such as: i. Poor Funding. ii. Poor Means of transportation and communication. iii. No accommodation. iv. Bad road network in Enugu. v. Poor Business activities etc. looking at this the following is being recommended for improving this developmental objective. a. Government commitment in developing the sector, this giving the much desired self-reliance a priority by investing creative thus being involved in creation of opportunities for self-reliance rather than relying on government and other big companies for their jobs. The provision of an organized loan revolving scheme, thus making it mandatory for benefactors to repay in time. d. NASSI should as well trained organize their curricular towards giving trainings that are practical and not theory so as to feel the impact soonest. And finally the need to inculcate into our psych and schema the need to be technologically self-reliant. However therefore, the research is suggesting that further studies could be done on this by evaluation the impact of small scale enterprises in the economy. And prospects of the Nigeria co-operative society in a depressed economy. Consequently, the research solicits for NASSI to be more pragmatic in their operation of the decree of which they were established and then government in its own effort to try and create an enabling environment for co-operative society. In these words Abraham Maslow (a psychologist known for his theories regarding human needs) indicated that the most valuable 100 people to bring into deteriorating society would not be economists or politicians or engineer rather 100 entrepreneurs.
1.1 Background to the Study
It was revealed that co-operative societies contribute to youth empowerment by creation of jobs, skills and training e.t.c.
According to Ilo(2012), co-operative society is an autonomous association of persons united voluntary to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Co-operative societies are guided by a set of social responsibilities and caring for oters.
Because of this, they follow a broader sets of values than those associated purely with making profit namely self help, self responsibility, democracy, equality, equity and solidarity. The democractic nature of the co-operative society encourages participation, broaders ownership and fosters empowermwnt of youth. Indeed, youth often cite that it is the coo-operative values and principles tht make co-operative attractive to them both a means to create their own enterprises or as a potential employer who will provide them “decent work”.
According to World Bank(2012), it is estimated that co-operative societies provide 100 million jobs world wde. Although, the exact proportion of youths in this total is difficult to determine, co-operative societies are clearly a significant sources of employment creation.
The co-opertaive model of enterprise contributes to youth employment not by only providing salaried employment, but also facilitating job creation through self employment. The model lends itself to both rural and urban areas and for youth of all academic and skill level including recent graduates who have limited prospects of finding jobs.
According to Ilo(2012), for those seeking salaried employment, it is particularly attractive in countries where youths entering the job market seek work that responds to both their economic need and also to their desire to work in businesses that are responsive to people’s needs, embrace , democratic, practices in work place and are responsible enterprises.
For those looking to start a business co-operative society enable youths to pull often limited financial resources with knowledge in an enterprise that can response to nearly every need and productive activity. The co-operative form of enterprise is an option for youth as it has low capital requirements, limited liability and in cases where members are also employees, the flexibility of elf employment option is particularly important for youths to enter into the labour market when faced with the problem of finding a first job due to lack of opportunities or lack of experience.
According to MasterCard foundation (2010), co-operative societies play a role in formalization of informal employment through collective voice and economic scale and extension of social protection. In Africa the entrepreneurs co-operatives are showing signs of growth, where small and medium businesses, many of which are informal, come together to form a co-operative to share services.
According to Sam (2012), co-operative societies do not only provide jobs or entrepreneurship opportunities, but also essential services. Operating across the world in nearly all sector of the economy, young people (youths) can benefit from accessible and affordable products and services that co-operatives offer for their members and the communities on which they operate, such as food and consumer retail, financial services, health and social care, housing, transport, communication utilizes mobile phones and internet services. As members they also have the opportunities to influence the types of services available and terms on which they are offered.
According to World Bank (2012), one area of particular importance of co-operative societies is access to finance for young people (youths) who will like to start their own businesses. According to them, 2.5 billion people (youths) and 400 million businesses worldwide do not have to access to financial services and products needed for growth. Youth are 33 percent (%) less likely to have a bank account and 40 percent (%) likely less to have formal savings and less than 5 percent (%) of youth have access to financial co-operatives society as the second largest banking network worldwide with 45 percent (%) of their branches in rural areas and with a profuse history of resilience in times of economic and financial crises, play a vital role. They support the creation and growth of all forms of business by providing access to financial services including credit. Many have introduced specific services to cater to the needs of young people (youth)( and young entrepreneurs to allow them to start, maintain and growth their enterprises co-operative as well as other forms of business.
International Co-operative Alliance (ICA)(1995) defines co-operative society as an autonomous association of persons united voluntary to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs democratically controlled enterprise.
Also Ebony and Timo (2002) on their parts described co-operative societies as association of person who have voluntary come together to achieve common objective through the formation of democratically controlled organization, making equitable contributions to the capital required and accepting a fair share of the risks and the benefits of the undertaking.
Uwcc (2012), summarily describes co-operative societies as a business enterprise that is voluntary owned and controlled by its members, potion and operated for them on a nonprofit or cost basis.
Finally, Dogarawa (2005) is an effective way people to extent control over their livelihoods, provide a unique tool for achieving one or more economic goods in an increasingly competitive global economic; own what might be difficult for individuals to own or pursue by their efforts, strengthen the communities in which they operate through job provision. Generally, co-operative provides an economic boost to the community. The co-operation to Audctal (2007) enables people to achieve through jointly efforts, what they are unable to achieve while working as individuals.
- Statement of the Problem
Based on study of Ilo (2012), close to 75 million youths are out of work and an increasing number of youths neither in employment nor in education or training, especially in more developed countries like Nigeria. This decent work deficit does not only put the youths at risks of seeing increasingly social conflicts and political unrest due to the lack of job opportunities.
Not only do underutilized youths incur significant losses by not fulfilling their potential, but this under utilization for youths in the labour market can trigger a vicious circle of intergenerational poverty and social exclusion. Youths face specific challenges in entering the workforce. Their lack of professional experience may plunge them into the experience “trap”. They are unable to get a job, and so they are unable to gain professional experience that would allow them to gain professional experience that would allow them get a job. During the economic down turns youth can be the list to be hired (due to lack of experience) and the first out principle.
Consequently, youths struggle to find a job that soot their qualifications and employers fails to recruits the graduates with the right skills set. In developing countries where 87 percent (%) of the world’s youth live, often under employed and working in the informal economy under poor conditions, the challenges is also to improve the quality of jobs available to them in addition to generating new employment opportunities.
Finally, girls and young women are often particularly disadvantaged and although gender gaps in education are narrowing. In most regions these gains in educational attainment which have not translated into equal opportunities in the labour market.
- Purpose of the Study
The main objective of this research writing work is to assess the roles of co-operative societies in youth empowerment in Enugu state. Specifically, it was to;
- Access to the youth of Nigeria.
- Find out the challenges of co-operative societies towards youth empowerment in Nigeria.
- Examine the co-operative skills and training that are for Nigeria youths.
- Research Question
The following research questions are formulated;
- What are the functions of co-operative societies to the youth of Enugu?
- To what extent can co-operative societies contribute towards youth empowerment in Enugu state (Nigeria)?
- To what extent does co-operative societies skills and training affects Enugu youths?
- Significance of the Study
The result of this work will be of immense important to the youths of Enugu (Nigeria) by providing necessary information they should know about co-operative societies in their state (country), knowing the meaning, concepts functions and roles which they have for so long performing towards youths empowerment in the country. Revealing the role of co-operative societies in youth in expanding their skills towards entrepreneurship and self employment because, from this people will know that depending on white collar jobs do not work self employment. Students will also benefits from this research work by understanding the meaning and attributes of co-operative societies in the country. This will serve as a learning material and pieces of information to them.
Finally, researchers will benefits from this research work because they will see this material as a researchable material.
- Scope of the Study
This work center on the role of co-operative societies in youth empowerment in Enugu state using Nnewi Nokrth Local Government Area as a case study. This would expand more but some constraints hinder5s to the topic.
- Limitations of the Study
Many constraints are faced by the researcher while conducting this research work, they include;
Finance: There is no enough money for the internet browsing for the material, producing the necessary copies and transporting to the study area because this was combined with both students and exams.
Time: Due to delay in the academic calendar this work was not completed at it’s appropriate required time making students to suffer limited time and it was combined with academic studies, then enough was not allotted.
Indifferences in the Study area: Some of the respondents do not fully complied in relating information concerning this research work. While some refused to supply information some were willingly providing information. But in all, necessary information was gotten to the completion of the work.
- Definition of Terms
Some words used in this work are explained as follows according to its contextual meaning.
Co-operative: This is a principle based enterprises that put people, rather than pursuit of profit at the center of their business.
Co-operative Society: This is an autonomous association of persons united voluntary to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs democratically controlled enterprises.
Youths: This is a young people living in a community that needed to be equipped and trained by the government not because they are the future of the country.
Empowerment: This is a system of generating and initiating a program that will encourage the skill and also knowledge of youths in the country.
Role: This is part played by someone in changing the performance of individual an d also a designation that develop an associated set of responsibilities, knowledge, skill and attitudes.
Societies: this is a group of people living in a geographical territory who are sharing the same culture, norms, behavior and character for common goal.
Enterprises: This is a project and business organization set for a purposeful goal.
Unemployment: This is a situation of not being doing anything for a living. It involves the situation of youth not engaging in any pay activity that will help in making a living.
Employment: It is a situation of engaging in something for making a living and it must be a pay activities.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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