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We underline the main causes of deforestation and present a framework for mitigating the continual loss of forest habitat around the world. The causes of deforestation are complex and they operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales, yet they are related to societal and political factors. Societal factors consist of human migration within rural settings and poverty. Political factors include ineffective land management and negligence of monitoring and protecting forest commodities. Combined, these factors present arduous challenges to protecting forest habitats. This study focuses on developing deforestation management system that would help manage the activities of the forest and wild life.










1.1 Background of the study

Today forest occupy approximately one –third of earth land area, account for two – third of the leaf area of plants on land and contain 70 percent of carbon present in living things. Thus, the food and agricultural organization (FAO) of the united nations estimates that in 2000, 38.7 million square kilometer of land on earth is forested. Forest is essential to all human life because people who live within the forest zone depend on them for survival in many ways. These include food, medicine, fuel wood, shelter, clothing, timber, construction materials etc. The forest also cleans the air, water, ameliorate the climate, check water and wind erosion (Geist et al. 2012). Forest contains roughly 90 percent of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity. However, forest is a major causality of civilization as human population have increased over the past several  thousand years (with the world population today estimated to number 7.001 billion by united state census Bureau)  bringing  deforestation, pollution and industrial usages problems to this important biome (forest).The contributions of forests to human well-being can only be sustained if the forests are themselves sustained (Walker, 2018). But Nigeria has lost most of  her natural forest cover which is a serious problem, with  forest loss occurring at a rate of 3.5 percent per year, which translate to a loss of 350,000 to 400,000 hectares per year (Allen et al. 2015). Since 1990, the country has lost over 6 million ha or 36 percent of its forests cover. Nigeria has been losing an average 11 percent of its primary forest each year. This figure gives Nigeria the highest deforestation rate of natural forest in the world.

Deforestation is the removal of forest stand where the land is put to a non – forests use. Deforestation results from subsistence farming, commercial farming, road construction projects, logging, mining and dam construction. However, Amelung et al. (2012) attributed resources degradation in extensive rain fed farming (characteristic of tropical forest environment) areas to poverty and population growth. George et al. (2017) also identified conversion of primary forest to agriculture, with attendant loss of biodiversity, climate change and expose of fragile soil as part of environmental problems emanating from rain fed farming (which cause deforestation). Deforestation could be caused by plantations and commodities and settlements. The removal of tress without sufficient reforestation has resulted in climate change, damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. The carbon lost from the destruction of forest is exacerbated (increase) by gas flaring, associated to deforestation are air pollution, ozone depletion, land degradation and constantly declining soil fertility and above all declining quality of life (Wunder, 2017).

According, Angelsen, (2015) observed threats posed by economic constraints to sustainable forest management in sub – Sahara Africa as overwhelming. Forest have been held in reverence in folklore and worshipped in ancient religion. Lindsey, (2017) submitted that tress and forest were impacting people’s way of lives and are cultures, languages, mythologies and folklores of peoples living within and around the forest. These belief, attitude and behavior of local people influenced their ways of live and assisted a great deal in conservation of forest reserve. Therefore, traditional beliefs influence people value, behavior and perception towards the forest and so help conserve the forest.

1.2   Problem definition

Expanding agriculture is the largest contributor to deforestation. In 2016, the Union of Concerned Scientists reported that the major contributor to deforestation was the production of beef, soy, palm oil, and wood materials, estimating that they drive the destruction of almost four million hectares of forests every year. To make matters worse, land set aside for agriculture is usually set aside for good, meaning that landowners won’t consider reforesting the area. Clearcutting, a logging practice where all the trees in an area are felled, or cut down, is still common. While some companies may make an effort to replant trees in logged areas, it’s usually done so that the logging process can continue. The trees planted are rarely native to the region but always contain lucrative wood types. Even if lands are protected, the industry is so profitable that logging may still occur illegally.

Fires are also playing a part in forest destruction. A 2018 study by the World Resources Institute found that wildfires contributed to twenty-three percent of the global loss of tree cover from 2001 to 2015. While fires can naturally occur and play a vital role in maintaining ecosystems, an increasing number are being caused, both directly and indirectly, by humans. Slash-and-burn agriculture is frequently used by small-scale farmers and has recently been criticized since its overuse can actually kill rather than revitalize soils. Fires are also used to clear land in Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Americas when clearcutting is deemed too slow or otherwise impractical. Messing with the local ecosystem, such as by felling trees, can also make more areas susceptible to wildfires.

Our forests are disappearing rapidly, and we’re already reaping the effects of this mass destruction. Trees store carbon dioxide, so burning, cutting, or otherwise destroying them releases that CO2 back into the atmosphere. With fewer trees to take in that carbon dioxide and eventually convert it, we end up increasing greenhouse gas emissions, which means raising the global temperature, altering weather and water patterns, and increasing the severity of extreme weather events.  That’s just one effect of deforestation. About eighty percent of documented land species live in forests. Destroying their homes directly contributes to dwindling their numbers, potentially leading to their extinction. Replanting foreign trees won’t help these animals survive since they don’t have the same properties as native ones, and even if they did, it can take years for wildlife to adapt to using them. In that time, local species can easily become endangered or go extinct. Furthermore, getting rid of forests changes the soil composition, which can lead to soil degradation and erosion. This can wipe out ecosystems, sweeping lands into rivers.

1.3 Objective of study

In view of the problems mentioned above, this project is aimed at developing a management system for deforestation. The specific objectives includes:

  1. Automate deforestation management on the system.
  2. Manage system access and roles on the system.
  • Manage every users of the system.

1.4 Significance of study      

One of the significance of deforestation is its being a source of income for farmers who cut down trees to be made into coal and be sold as fuel. Moreover, trees from forests are also made into construction and building materials to build houses. This helps not to provide shelter to people but also to boon the construction industry. Another use of deforestation in livelihood is through conversion of forests into agricultural or farm lands to be used by farmers to plant crops. Another benefit of deforestation is the transformation of forests into paved roads to transport goods and commodities to other places and meet the demands of consumers. Also, it can be used by industries for different kind of businesses such as infrastructure, construction and theme parks. Deforestation results to availability of trees that can be made into timber and be used for construction. Aside from this, other parts of the trees have numerous uses such as sap used to become paper, toothpick, tissue and food, among others. To make clearing of the forest possible, man power is needed. This does not only include engineers but also skilled workers who are given the chance to earn and provide for their families. Also, those who convert some parts of the forest and convert them to farm lands become agriculturists and entrepreneurs. People who invest money to create theme parks or tourist attractions employ workers to build and operate their businesses. Forests encompass large areas of land which can be used to build manufacturing plants and additional infrastructure. All these are all indications that a country or community is developing and becoming industrialized. Consequently, there can also be a boom of the economy.

1.5 Scope of the Study  

The scope of this study is limited to Design and Implementation of Deforestation Management System.

1.6 Limitations of the Study

Many factors have limited this study, some of these factors are:
Time: The time allocated to research work for this study was greatly constrained due to intense academic activities involving the researcher.
Finance: The major constraints for this study occurred in the form of inadequate funds.  The present high cost of material, access to a personal computer unit for running and debugging of the website, transportation expenses to and fro the site of a computer school etc. militated against the smooth and easy advancement of the work.

1.7 Definition of terms

Deforestation: Deforestation or forest clearance is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farmsranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests.

Management System: A management system is a set of policies, processes and procedures used by an organization to ensure that it can fulfill the tasks required to achieve its objectives. These objectives cover many aspects of the organization’s operations.

Forest: A forest is an area of land dominated by trees. Hundreds of definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing, and ecological function.

Green House Gases: A greenhouse gas (GHG or GhG) is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, causing the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3).


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