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Title page             ———————————————————————i

Approval page       ———————————————————————ii

Certification         ———————————————————————iii

Dedication            ———————————————————————iv

Acknowledgement ——————————————————– ————v

Table of Contents ———————————————————————-vi

Abstract               ———————————————————————viii

List of Tables       ———————————————————————-ix

List of figures        ———————————————————————-x




  • Background of Study ————————————————————1
  • Statement of Problem ————————————————————3
  • Purpose of the Study  ————————————————————4
  • Significance of the Study——————————————————–4
  • Scope of the study  —————————————————————4



2.1 Review of related literature ——————————————————–5

2.2 Theoretical background     ———————————————————13

2.2.1 Private ultrasonographic centre as a small scale business enterprise—-13

2.2.2 Preliminaries to business formation and ownership————————15

2.2.3 Causes of small business failure———————————————–17

2.2.4 The importance of small business enterprises——————————-21

2.2.5 ‘Planning for” and “citing of” a private ultrasonographic centre———22

2.2.6 Management of an ultrasonographic centre———————————-25



3.1 Research design ———————————————————————27

3.2 Source of data ———————————————————————–27

3.3 Population of study —————————————————————–28

3.4 Method of data collection———————————————————-28







5.1 Discussion of findings —————————————————————44

5.2 Summary of findings —————————————————————-47

5.3 Conclusion —————————————————————————-47

5.4 Recommendations ——————————————————————-48

5.5 Areas of further study —————————————————————49

5.6 Limitations of study —————————————————————–49

REFERENCES ———————————————————————–50



This study was done to determine the problems and prospects of setting up and running a private ultrasonographic centre in Enugu metropolis. It was carried out in the 38 registered diagnostic centres with private hospitals inclusive that have an ultrasonographic unit. A survey type of design was used for the study, the source of data collection was a primary one. A total of 64 questionnaires were distributed to the proprietors and sonographers in the centres and 61 questionnaires duly filled and returned given a return rate of 95.3%. The data collected was analyzed using tabulated frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. They were categorized in line with the objectives of the study; tables, pie charts, a bar chart and a histogram were the statistical tools used. Through the findings, it was shown that high cost of ultrasonographic equipment and access to finance where the major set – up barriers while shortage of qualified sonographers and high cost of equipment maintenance were the major managerial problems. The work further revealed that running a private ultrasonographic centre is profitable. It has the prospect of becoming the leading provider of ultrasonographic service. As deduced from the result, the initial capital for establishing a private ultrasonographic centre is inadequate, therefore intending owners should source for sufficient initial fund before commencing the establishment process.


Table 1: Sex distribution of respondents ———————————————–27

Table 2: Response to adequacy of initial capital ————————————–30

Table 3: Preference for the source of initial capital ————————————32

Table 4: Degree of barrier constituted by identified set-up problems —————35

Table 5: Response to availability of sonographers ————————————-36

Table 6: Degree of effects of identified managerial problems ———————–37

Table 7: Response to availability of referral sources ———————————-39

Table 8: Average number of patients attended to per month ————-APPENDIX

Table 9: Degree of agreement with identified prospects —————————-40


Figure I: A histogram showing the age distribution of respondents —————-30

Figure II: A bar chart showing the post qualification experience of respondents–34

Figure III: A pie chart showing the sources of initial capital of respondents ——37

Figure IV: A pie chart showing the assessment of ultrasonography as a profitable business venture —————————————————————————-42




Ultrasonography to a great extent can be said to be an imaging modality of choice as regards to carrying out the diagnostic survey of various body organs/regions especially in obstetrical cases, although non-obstetrical cases are never left out. Nevertheless, this is made more evident when one chooses to check out the through-put of patients in both ultrasonographic units of almost all the government health institutions in Enugu metropolis and also in the ultrasonographic centre’s owned by private practitioners.1 Nigerians spend more than $0.5 trillion a year on healthcare, accounting for approximately 53% of the nation’s entire GDP. Yet many entrepreneurs are hesitant to enter the field probably because they believe they need an advanced medical background to be successful. In fact, there are several fields in the health sector for entrepreneurs who lack medical degrees to invest in, including ultrasonography. Although you must not have a medical school degree to launch an ultrasound business (non-professional entrepreneur), but a medical background will be useful, and your staff will need to be certified sonographers with current RDMS (Registered Diagnostic Medical Sonographer)credentials. If your business will also offer ultrasound reports, you will need certified radiologists either as staff or available on an out-sourced basis. Sonographic equipment is another hurdle you need to overcome during the early stages of your business plan: you will need to shop around to identify machines that are right for your business model and budget. Physicians expect to receive results quickly, so your Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) must be capable of immediately sending images to physicians and radiologists. Mobile ultrasound business, due to its convenience is becoming more commonplace as a way for physicians to bill patients directly while outsourcing ultrasound activities to an external provider. As a mobile ultrasound provider, you will need to invest in durable equipment that can easily be carried in and out of patients’ homes.2

In general, the value proposition for private practitioners is patient convenience, better management and increased revenue. Investment in ultrasonographic services by private practitioners has been on the increase. This could be attributed to more accruable economic benefits, it can also be said to offer great employment opportunities. A keen observation of ultrasonography in Enugu state revealed that the ultrasonographic services provided are inadequate. This could be attributed to the few number of ultrasonographic centre’s in the state coupled with inefficient management observed in most of these centre’s, particularly the government owned ones. With the existence of ultrasonographic units in the three government health institutions in Enugu and few other private ones, it is still believed that there has been less effort to establish more ultrasonographic centre’s despite the number of hospitals/clinics within the state.1 All these seems to point towards the need for more ultrasonographic centre’s in Enugu hence the need to assess the problems of establishing a good ultrasonographic centre and to determine the prospects of running it on a private basis.


  1. Intending investors need to be aware of the major problems of establishing and managing a private ultrasonographic centre.
  2. There may be financial setbacks limiting the investors from optimal establishment and management of private ultrasonographic centres.
  3. Intending investors need to be aware of the prospects of practicing ultrasonography on a private basis.




  1. To determine the limiting factors to setting up a private ultrasonographic centre.
  2. To identify the managerial problems associated with running a private ultrasonographic centre.
  3. To outline the prospects of managing a private ultrasonographic centre.



  1. The outcome will provide useful information required for the efficient management of a private ultrasonographic centre.
  2. The work will equally be a source of motivation and guide to sonographers towards private practice.
  3. Information on the prospects of running a private ultrasonographic centre will most likely lead to setting up of more ultrasonographic centres which will in turn promote competition and thereby lead to improved service delivery.



The prospective study will involve private hospitals and diagnostic centres in Enugu metropolis with an ultrasonographic unit.


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