Page Length: 59

Size: 264 KB

Format: PDF & Word




The research work sought to find the extent of integration of practical into teaching chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu South L.G.A Enugu State. Research questions were raised and questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the students. The information so obtained were subject to analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of the statistical analysis showed that these students are sufficiently aware of the impact of the integration of practical in teaching chemistry, Such encouraging results suggest that, enhancing practical classes would improve the technological level of sciences in Nigerian educational system and individual student interest in sciences. Topics for further research and recommendations were also made.


Title page                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                  ii

Approval                                                                                      iii

Certification                                                                                iv

Dedication                                                                                   v

Acknowledgment                                                                        vi

Abstract                                                                                       vii
Table of Content                                                                        viii

List of Tables                                                                              xi




1.1     Background                                                                        1

1.2     Statement of Problems                                                      3

1.3     Purpose of Study                                                               4

1.4     Significance of the Study                                                  5

1.5     Research of Question                                                        5

1.6     Scope of the Study                                                             6



LITERATURE REVIEW                                                          9

2.1     Meaning of Science                                                           9

2.2     Brief History of Science                                                    10

2.3     Nature of Science                                                              11

2.4     Development of Science                                                   13

2.4.1  Theory Stage                                                                      14

2.4.2  Nature of Chemistry as Science                                        15

2.5     Brief History of Chemistry                                               16

2.6     Needs for Practical Integration into Teaching and Learning of Chemistry in Secondary Schools                                                            18

2.7     Importance of Practical Integrations into Teaching and

Learning of Chemistry                                                      20

2.8     Factors Affecting the Achievement of Secondary School Chemistry Students in Relation to Studying Chemistry in the Laboratory          23




  • Introduction 28
  • Design of Study 28
  • Area of Study 28
  • Population 28
  • Sampling and Sampling Techniques 30
  • Methods for Data Collection 32
    • Primary Data Collection 32
    • Secondary Data Collection 32
  • Constructions Reliability and Validity of the Methods

for Data Collection                                                            33

3.8     Method of Data Analysis                                                  33








5.1     Discussion of Result                                                          42

5.2     Implication of the Study                                                    43

5.3     Limitations of the Study                                                   44

5.4     Suggestion for Further Research                                       45

5.5     Recommendations                                                             46

5.5     Summary and Conclusion                                                 46

References                                                                                   48

Appendix                                                                                     52



In Nigeria emphasis in developing our science and technological skills is very high because they are vital for economic and industrial development. The essence of this research work is to ascertain the level of practical integration in our senior secondary schools, to create awareness of it is importance into teaching and learning and recommendation of how to improve in our technological level as a nation.


In Nigeria science and technology is indispensable to use because it is the bedrock of our economic and industrial development. Basic as it is science and technology is in our daily human activities. It is worthy to note that the major advances made in Medicine, Pharmacy, Industrial Chemistry, Engineering are based on researches being conducted in many areas of science and technology such as Chemistry.

Chemistry is taught as a science subject in almost all Nigeria senior secondary schools even in the higher and tertiary institutions and these schools thus serve as the starting point for the teaching of introductory chemistry with the aim of training the students in the process of scientific investigations. Chemistry is one of the core-science subjects in our school because it is one of the entry requirements in some fields of studies such as Nursing, Medicine, Pharmacy, Engineering, Science Education, Biochemistry and so on.

The extent of integration of practicals in senior secondary schools has a lot to tell on any chemistry students especially in his or her final examination since no work is done on any science subject especially chemistry if there is no integration of practicals which helps in better assimilation of scientific theories for effective industrial output in the society.

The most influential science process established (Tamir, 1991) stated that the prerequisite knowledge of concept and principles can be obtained only if the students have certain underlying capability of the science processes, which are needed to practise and understand science subject especially in Chemistry. These processes include, making operational definitions, formulations, observing, classifying, measuring, formulating hypothesis, interpreting data collected from the observations, and drawing conclusions.

However, contents and concepts will undoubtedly change but the mental skill of the approach that is process skills is relevant to the solution of everyday problem. If a student can think scientifically, he can observe, make simple hypothesis, test them by experiment and make valid inferences and interpreted data, then the level of science and technology in our country will increase to its apex.

Finally, science which Chemistry is a branch is the foundation for scientific enquiry. They are the generalizable intellectual skills needed to learn concepts and broad theories and principles used in making valid inductive inferences. Unfortunately, in Nigeria today, it appears that students are deprived of acquiring the appropriate process skills they need by the society, government, the school, teachers or even themselves. It has been observed that students in this present era are not doing marvellously well especially in their science hence this poor performance in their practical examinations in senior school certificate examination affects the overall result.

For this reason the present research is focused to ascertain the extent of integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in senior secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government of Enugu State.


In recent years, manpower and millions of naira have been devoted in efforts to improve science teaching in the schools because of the decrease in standard of education in Nigeria has fallen. The teaching of science subjects in Nigeria is now faced with lots of problems and they include among others:

  1. Scarcity of qualified science teachers in our schools.
  2. The quality and quantity of laboratory technologists employed in our schools.
  3. Inadequate laboratory facilities in our schools.
  4. Absence of laboratories in some schools.

In this present era there has been shortage of teachers with good knowledge of ways of imparting scientific knowledge and results has shown that laboratory method of teaching science subjects helps to increase our student scientific skills and knowledge thereby solving our country’s industrial and economic problems.

Based on the above, the obvious adverse problems as stated above, states the importance of this study, which tends to look into the extent or level of integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in senior secondary schools in Enugu South local Government Area of Enugu State.


The purpose of this research work is to access the extent of integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu South local government of Enugu State. More specifically, the study is aimed at: –

  • To ascertain the level of practical chemistry in senior secondary schools.
  • To determine the frequency of practical lessons into the teaching of chemistry.
  • To determine the problem inhibiting the integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in senior secondary schools.
  • To suggest solutions to problems encountered by chemistry and science students with regards to practicals.


Since every well researched work aimed at improving other existing research work in other to solve an existing problem; this present research will help in obtaining useful information concerning the extent of integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in senior secondary school classes and making appropriate recommendations that will improve or increase the overall performance in External Examinations.

It will also serve as a means of obtaining more information for further research work.


In view to actualize the purposes of this study, the following research questions have to be stated as a guide to the researcher.

  1. What is the extent of integration of practical into teaching chemistry in Senior Secondary School?
  2. What is the frequency of practical teaching of chemistry in the Senior Secondary School?
  3. What are the problems inhibiting teaching chemistry practicals in the Senior Secondary School?
  4. What are the possible recommendations or solution of these problems of laboratory method of teaching science subjects in our Senior Secondary School?



This study mainly focused on findings from Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu State specifically in Enugu south local government area. This local government is made up urban and rural area. Among the urban area include Awkunanaw, Uwani, Idwa- River, Maryland. While the rural areas include: Obeagu, Ugwaji, Ndiagu, Amechi and Akwuke.


Table 1.1: Presentation of Data Table of Senior Secondary School in Enugu South Local Government Area

S/N Enugu South (SNR) Boys Girls Co-Educ Total Remark
1 Union S. S. Awkunanaw 1 0 0 1  
2 C. I. I. Enugu 1 0 0 1 Non-Dis
3 Uwani S. S. Enugu 1 0 0 1  
4 Army Day S. S. Awkunanaw 0 0 1 1  
5 Idaw-Rier G. S.S. 0 1 0 1  
6 B.S.S. Maryland 1 0 0 1  
7 H. R. C. Uwani 0 1 0 1 Non-Dis
8 G. G. R. S. Awkunanaw 0 1 0 1  
9 C. S. S. Ugwuaji 0 0 1 1  
10 C. S. S. Akwuke 0 0 1 1  
11 C.S.S. Ndiagu Amechi 0 0 1 1 Non-Dis
12 C. S. S. Obeagu Awkunanaw 0 0 1 1  
13 Chukwu Mem. S. S. 0 0 1 1  
  Total 4 3 6 13  

Source: Post Primary School Management Board, Enugu, 2009

Mean while each of these areas that make up the local government area has both private and government owned senior secondary school, because of the limitation of this work, it centers more on the government owned senior secondary school.

The local government has thirteen (13) senior secondary school in total boy schools are four (4) and girls schools and three (3) while co-educational are six (6).

Table 1.2:  Presentation of Data Table of Senior Secondary Schools Enrolment in Enugu Local Government Area 2009

  Enugu South (SNR) Boys Girls Co-Educ
S/N Name of School M F T
1 Union S. S. Awkunanaw 430 0 430
2 Uwani  S.S Enugu 634 0 634
3 C. I. I. Enugu 1675 0 1675
4 Idaw-River G. S. S. 0 910 910
5 B. S. S. Maryland 175 0 175
6 G. G. R. S. Awkuannaw 0 669 669
7 C. S. S. Obeagu Awkunanaw 49 68 117
8 C. S. S. Ugwuaji 76 39 115
9 Army Day S. S. Awkunanaw 354 268 622
10 H. R. C. Enugu 0 1730 1730
11 Chukwu Mem. S. S. 22 36 58
12 C. S. S. Ndiagu Amechi 71 90 161
13 C. S. S. Akwuke 84 82 166
  Total 3570 3892 7462

Source: Post Primary School Management Board, Enugu, 2009

Based on the above, and as result of cost of material; land other logistic and other physical problems the research is restricted to adopt random sampling method of some schools which will be taken to be evaluated as the obtainable value for the studied local government.

Table 1.3:  Presentation of Data Table for Science (Chemistry) Students of Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu South Local Govern78ment Area 2009

  Enugu South (SNR) Boys Girls Co-Educ
S/N Name of School M F T
1 Union S. S. Awkunanaw 220 0 220
2 Uwani  S.S Enugu 330 0 330
3 C. I. I. Enugu 950 0 950
4 Idaw-River G. S. S. 0 400 400
5 B. S. S. Maryland 50 0 50
6 G. G. R. S. Awkuannaw 0 410 410
7 C. S. S. Obeagu Awkunanaw 20 30 50
8 C. S. S. Ugwuaji 25 10 35
9 Army Day S. S. Awkunanaw 100 150 250
10 H. R. C. Enugu 0 1300 1300
11 Chukwu Mem. S. S. 10 20 30
12 C. S. S. Ndiagu Amechi 20 10 30
13 C. S. S. Akwuke 30 30 60
  Total 1755 1190 2945

Source: Post Primary School Management Board, Enugu, 2009



DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Administrator (Online)
Hello and welcome. I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.