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The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of “ka oha malu” Radio Nigeria, Enugu phone in
programme on residents of Enugu urban. To achieve this, survey research method was used.
Subjects were drawn from Enugu urban, using simple random sampling and purposive sampling.
Three research questions guided the study. Research findings showed that a great number of
respondents in Enugu urban listens to “ka oh malu”. To this end, the researcher recommended
that attention should be paid towards packaging of phone in programme which will serve as a
means of audiences’ participation as this will encourage listeners to participate fully.
1.1 Background of the study
Communication has always been in existence even before the name communication was
attach to it. Communication can come through different forms, either as Non-verbal
communication or verbal communication. In any way it comes as, it is the dissemination of
information, ideas, feelings, emotions, thoughts within oneself or from one person to another.
Thus, communication is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of
ideas, feelings, intentions. attitudes, expectations, perceptions or commands, as by speech,
gestures, writings, behaviour and possibly by other means such as electromagnetic, chemical or
physical phenomena. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more
participants ( machines, organisms or their parts). Communication requires a sender, a message,
a medium and a recipient, although the receiver those not have to be present or aware of the
senders intention to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur
across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties
share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the
receiver understands the senders message.
Communication as an academic discipline, sometimes called “communicology” relates to
all the ways we communicate, so it embraces a large body of study and knowledge. Although,
there is such a thing as one-way communication, communication can better be described as a two
way process in which it is an exchange of ideas towards a mutually accepted goals or directions.
Hence, the process of a phone-in programme in mass media is an important means of
communication strategy, to generate awareness and sharing of ideas. In most developing
countries, Nigeria inclusive, radio is an effective medium to reach the general population. Unlike
TV and print, radio programmes are popular platform for direct audience participation to
exchange views and voice concerns on issues to increase knowledge, encourage open discussion
on health, human rights and other relevant issues and promote sustained behavioural changes.
In broadcasting, a phone in programme is a format in which listeners are invited to air
their views comments, opinion through telephone. Usually, in respect of a specific topic for
discussion, the presenter is made the line open for interested listener to share his/her views using
mobile phones.
According to research, BBC radio Nottingham is credited with having aired the first
phone-in programme on February 4th 1968 in a programme called “What Arc They Up To
Speech-based talk Radio UK was launched in 1995 with much of its programming
featuring phone in programmes. Ian Hutchby carried a research on poor relations in phone-in
programmes looking at arguments and confrontations. He used conversation analysis to describe
how the host retains power through devices such as “the second positions” –the concept of going
second in a discussion, giving the host time to formulate a response.
Though it cannot be stated in actual fact the date phone-in programme began in Nigeria,
according to research, it started before the advent of global system for mobile telecommunication
(GSM) putting it in the 1980’s. However, since the introduction of GSM, in 2000 there has been
an increase in audience participation in phone-in programmes.
However, phone-in programme cannot be treated without reviewing Live Radio
programmes as it is the introduction of Live Radio programme that gave birth to phone-in
programme. Live radio programme has brought a lot of advantages to human, comprising the
ability to hear what is happening around you and observing things as it is being discussed.
Phone-in programme furthermore helps to draw from others experience through the phone-in
participation. If you listen to radio at least once in a while, you may remember a few
programmes. You remember them because of the events and the impact it created in your
thinking and everyday life.
Programmes like “Ka oha malu”, serves as a medium used by both government and
individuals to get to scattered audience as there are a lot listeners who tune in to listen to what is
going on around them. Ka oha malu is a phone-in programme aired my Radio Nigeria, Enugu
92.9FM. It aired to disseminate information as well as generate discussion among the listeners
and the presenter. It is an Igbo language speaking programme in that case audiences of this
phone-in programme are Igbo speaking audiences. this programme has long been in existence. It
is not paid for, the media house sees it as one of their social responsibility to educate and inform
the audience on issues around them.
1.2 Statement of the research problem
This research work is an innovation in broadcasting especially the introduction of phone
in segment in almost every programme being aired on both public and private radio stations
across the country.
One of the problems is the implication of having a wrong audience choice which is better
imagined. This would make the presenter have negative feedback. This is because there are some
audience members who participate in discussions that are not meant for them..
Thus, the researcher investigates if “ka oha malu” radio phone in programme has
provided the required feedback from the target audience.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The research had the following objectives:
1. To know if the phone-in programme “Ka oha malu” to an extent provided the expected
feedback required of the target audience.
2. To find out if phone-in programme is important in the programme planning.
3. To ascertain if ’”Ka oha malu is truly interactive.
1.4 Research questions
1. Has the phone-in programme “Ka oha malu” to an extent provided the expected feedback
required of the target audience?
2. Is phone-in programme important in the programme planning?
3. How truly interactive is “Ka oha malu”
1.5 Scope of the study
The scope of the study is focused on Enugu urban.
1.6 Significance of the study
A phone-in programme could be an instantaneous way of having feedback on any given
idea, policy or measure about to be introduced either by a corporate organization, an individual
or government of the day. It is obviously the best form of testing the acceptability of new ideas,
opinions and policies.
The study is therefore significant because it is capable of enabling the sampling of
opinion without necessarily undergoing the tedious voting process. This would make the listener
part and parcel (active) of decision masking or policy formulation.
The participatory nature of phone-in programme is expected to give an individual radio
listener a sense of belonging and not make him an inactive receiver of information and ideas
passed across by the radio.
It is therefore, the opinion of the researcher that the appraisal of this phone – in
programme will go a long way to enhancing quality production and presentation, as well as
making it truly audience participatory.
1.7 Operational definition of terms
Impact: It is the influence the phone-in programme “ka oha malu” has on the listening audience
as well as the impression they are left with about the programme even after it is brought to
Phone-in programme: It is a segment in a radio programming schedule in which topical and
important issues are tabled for discussion. This enables audience participation on “ka oha malu
and allows the media body or outfit elicit feedback from its audience who are interested in the
topic of discussion.
Ka oha malu: It is a human affair phone-in programme aired on Radio Nigeria, Enugu 92.9FM
within the hours of 11:30am to 12:00pm. Its aim is to generate discussion among its target
audience. It is an Igbo language speaking programme.
Residents: These are the occupants of a particular geographical area


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