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IN 1938, Prince established that bacteria recovered from the hands could be divided into two categories namely resident and transient flora.

The resident flora (resident microbiota) consists of microorganisms residing under the superficial cells of the stratum corneum and can  also be found on the surface of the skin staphylococcus epidermis is the dorminant species and Oxacillin resistance is extraordinary high particularly among HCINS and other resident bacteria include S.hominis and other coagulase negative staphylococci followed by coryneform bacteria (propioni bacteria, corynebacteria, dermobacteria and micrococci) among fungi the most common genus of the skin flora has two main protective functions;

Microbial antagonism and competition for nutrient in the ecosystem.

In general resident flora is less likely to be associated with infections in sterile body cavities, the eyes or non intact skin.

Transient flora (transient micro biota) which colonizes the superficial layers of the skin is more amenable to removal by routine hand hygiene. Transient microorganisms do not usually multiply on the skin but they survive sporadically multiply on the skin surface. They are often acquired by HCWs during direct contact with patients or contaminated environmental surfaces adjacent to the patient and the organism is frequently associated with HCAIS. Some types of contact during routine neonatal care are more frequently associated with higher levels of bacterial contamination of HCWs hands respiratory secretions, nappy/diaper change and direct skin contact. The transmissibility off transient flora depends on the specie present the number or microorganisms on the surface and skin moisture. The hands of some HCWs may become persistently flora such as staphylococcus aureus; Gram negative bacilli or yeast. Normal human skin is colonized by bacteria with total aerobic bacteria counts ranging from more than 1X106 colony forming units (CFU)/cm2 on the scalp 5X105 CFUS/cm2 on the abdomen to 1X104 CFU/cm2 on the fore arm. Total bacterial counts on the hands of HCWs have ranged from 3.9X104 to 4.6X106 CFU/cm2.

Fingertip contamination ranged from 0 to 300CFU when sampled by agar contact methods prince and subsequent investigators documented that although the count of transient and resident flora varies considerably among individuals it is often relatively constant for any given individual. Also among the organisms found on the hands also include staphylococci and staphylococcus aureus.

Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous bacterium on human skin and anterior nares but frequently causes severe infections in humans. It is the most commonly isolated human bacteria pathogen and is an important cause of skin and soft tissue infections, endovascular infections, pneumonia, septic arthritis endocarditis, oseteomyelitis, foreign-body infections and sepsis. S.aureus is the prime pathogen of health care associated infections which is called nosocomial infections. Virulence, ability to cause a diverse array of infections, capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions and its nasal carriage which accounts for possible re-infection and also spread. Present years have been a emergence of nosocomial infection with the introduction of new and sophisticated medical instruments. The incidence of nosocomial infection are caused even more frequently by multidrug-resistant bacteria that used to be isolated much more seldom previously but are significant regarding hospital hygiene.



The aim of this study is to investigate on microbial species associated with human hands, and also take note of their antibiotics sensitivity pattern.


The objectives of the study are;

  • To isolate bacteria pathogens associated with humans hands.
  • To determine antibiotics sensitivity pattern of isolates.


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