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For a total period of four months, effluent, water and soil samples were collected
on a monthly basis from an industrial area in Nnewi in Anambra State in order to
determine their constituents. A total of twenty six parameters were analyzed for
effluents and water, while a total of fourteen parameters were analyzed for soil.
The result showed that effluents from the industry (Promotex) contained a number
of contaminants which contaminate the soil and nearby river. Correlation
technique was used to determine the degree of relationship between nitrate content
and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) values of the effluents and water; and to
determine the degree of relationship between the pH values and the Arsenic
content of the soil. There was a generally low negative correlation for all the
months for the effluents(-0.58,-0.07,-0.09,and 0.47 respectively for July, August,
September and October) and soil (-0.03,-0.66.and- 0.54 for July, August and
October respectively) except for the month of September (0.06) that had a very
low positive correlation between the pH and Conductivity values of the soil. The
student t-test with N+ N- 2 degree of freedom was used to test for the null
hypothesis that there is no significance difference between the Alkalinity and
Chloride contents of the effluents and water. The environmental implications
established that Ele River as well as the soil in the area is polluted at varying levels
by effluents from the industry and surrounding environment.
CERTIFICATION ——————————————————————-i
1.1.Background to the Study————————.——————————-1
1.2.Statement of Problem————————————————————4
1.3.Scope of Study —————————————–.————————-6
1.4.Aim and Objectives of Study ————————————————–6
1.5. Significance of the Study ——————————————————7
1.6.Limitations of the Study——————————————————–8
1.7.Conceptual Framework———————————————————8
1.8.Study Area———————————————————————–11
1.9.Plan of Study——————————————————————–19
2.2.Industrial Waste and its composition—————————————-21
2.3.Enviromental Policy Instruments——————————————–27
3.1.Collection of Samples – – – – – – 32
3.2.Method of Determination of Parameters- – – – 34
3.2.1.Physical Parameters – – – – — – 34 Determination of Colour – – – – – 34 of pH – – – – – – 35 of Turbidity – – – – – 35 of Conductivity- – – — – 36 of Dissolved Solids – – – – 36
vii Suspended Solids- – – – – – 37
3.2.2.CHEMICAL PARAMETERS- – – – – – 37 of Chemical Oxygen Demand- – – 38 of Total Hardness – – — – 38 of Alkalinity – – – – – 39 of Acidity- – – – — – 40 of Nitrate- – – – – – 40 of Chloride- – – – – – 41 of Sulphate- – – – – – 42 of Magnesium- – – – – 43
3.2.3.Heavy Metal Analysis of Effluents- – – – – 44
3.2.4.Anaalysis of Soil Samples- – – – – – 45
4.1. Results And Discussions ——————————————————–47
4.2. Data Analysis———————————————————————-48
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION————————————————-67
5.2.Conclusion And Recommendation———————————————-69
APPENDIX 1: Tables Of Raw Data————————————————-76
APPENDIX 2: Statistical Inference————————————————–84
4.1.Average Values of Results for Effluent Analysis———————————-52
4.2.Average Values of Results for Soil Analysis—————————————54
4.3.Physical Characteristics of Effluents at Point A———————————–76
4.4. Physical Characteristics of Effluents at Point B———————————–77
4.5. Physical Characteristics of Effluents at Point C———————————–88
4.6. Physical Characteristics of Effluents at Point D———————————-89
4.7. Physical Characteristics of Effluents at Point E———————————–80
4.8. Chemical Characteristics of Effluents at Point A——————————–81
4.9. Chemical Characteristics of Effluents at Point B——————————–82
4.10. Chemical Characteristics of Effluents at Point C——————————-83
4.11. Chemical Characteristics of Effluents at Point D——————————-81
4.12. Chemical Characteristics of Effluents at Point E——————————82
4.13. Heavy Metals Characteristics of Effluents at Point A————————–83
4.14. Heavy Metals Characteristics of Effluents at Point B————————–83
4.15. Heavy Metals Characteristics of Effluents at Point C————————–83
4.16. Heavy Metals Characteristics of Effluents at Point D————————–83
4.17. Heavy Metals Characteristics of Effluents at Point E————————–83
4.18. Result Obtained after Soil Analysis for the Months of July, August,
September and October at Point A. ———————————————–83
4.19. Result Obtained after Soil Analysis for the Months of July, August,
September and October at Point B. ———————————————–83
4.20. Result Obtained after Soil Analysis for the Months of July, August,
September and October at Point C. ———————————————–83
4.21. Result Obtained after Soil Analysis for the Months of July, August,
September and October at Point D. ———————————————–83
4.22. Result Obtained after Soil Analysis for the Months of July, August,
September and October at Point E. ———————————————–83
4.23 Graphical Representation of Parameters on Months of July, August,
September and October ————————————————————83
4.24 Graphical Representation of Time (Months) on Points of Collection
of materials —————————————————————————83
Figure1.The Hydrologic Cycle———————————————————–10
Figure 2.Map of Nigeria showing Anambra State————————————-16
Figure 3.Map of Anambra State showing Nnewi North LGA———————–17
Figure 4.Map of Nnewi North LGA showing Location of the Study Area——–18
Plate 1: Photograph showing the vicinity of PROMOTEX————————–12
Plate 2: Photograph of gaseous discharge from PROMOTEX———————–14
Plate 3: Photograph of waste discharge from the Industry—————————-15
Plate 4: Photograph showing contamination of River Ele—————————-17
Plate 5: Photograph of point of discharge of effluent from Industry—————-58
Plate 6:Photograph of point of entry of effluents from PROMOTEX Into the
Plate 7: 500m away from point of discharge of effluent—————————-117
Plate 8: 1km away from point of discharge of effluent——————————118
Plate 9: A sample point from the vicinity of the Industry—————————118
Plate 10: A sample point along the course of River Ele—————————–119
Plate 11: A farmland 500m away from the Industry———————————119
Plate 12: A farmland 1km away from the Industry———————————–120

Industrial revolution describes the period of transition from an agricultural
society, devoid of mechanization, to a society that is based on industry. This results
to an increase in technological and economic activities. The origin of industrial
development is traceable to the industrial revolution in the 18th century (Abduli,
1996). Industrial revolution applies to a set of technical, economic and social
changes associated with a rapid development of industry. Industrial revolution was
a term used to describe changes in the British industry. These changes were in the
transformation of the coal, iron and textile industries; the mechanization of cotton
and woolen industries and the use of steam power. Britain is therefore regarded as
the first country to undergo full-scale industrialization. It changed the structure of
the British economy. The social and economic relations of the people were affected.
Generally, industrial revolution in itself is the shift, at different times in different
countries, from a traditionally agricultural based economy to one based on the
mechanized production of manufactured goods in large- scale enterprises (Mato,and
. Kasceva 1999).
Every nation strives to industrialize by working towards greatest degree of
self-sufficiency within its bounds. To achieve industrialization successfully,
countries need a highly productive agricultural sector; functioning markets; a stable
government and a conducive socio-political environment and institutional
framework. Such successful industrialization will depend to a very large extent on
the degree of utilization of locally available raw materials and other inputs,
including local manpower.
Industrial activities are not recent in Nigerian history. The Nigerian economy
started as a peasant subsistence agricultural economy. Nigeria depended on her cash
crops to satisfy the needs of the British colonial masters. By the late 1950s, regional
government and needs promoted regional competition and cash crop development.
Marketing boards were established to pursue agricultural commodity exports. From
the East flowed rivers of palm oil; from the North, pyramids of groundnut, while in
the West were warehouses full of bags of cocoa beans. All these were exported in
their raw and unprocessed form.
With the discovery of oil in 1956 by Shell Petroleum Development Company
(SPDC), Nigeria’s dependence shifted from cash crop economy to an “oil” monoeconomy. Oil then accounted for over 90 percent of Nigeria’s foreign exchange.
This ushered in the oil boom era. With the crashing of oil prices in the early 1980s,
Structural Adjustment became inevitable as Nigeria found it difficult to meet her
obligations. The naira began its decline. Local industries became expensive to run.
Consequently, there was massive reliance on imported goods. Sequel to this, the
Research Department of National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies made
some recommendations on the restructuring of Nigeria’s industrial policy.
The experience of industrial activities in Nnewi is not different from the
national experience. Nnewi people started with peasant subsistence farming, palm
produce trading and transportation business and commercial apprenticeship.
According to the records of the Nnewi Chamber of Commerce, Industry,
Mines and Agriculture (NCCIMA) there were 40 registered members in 1992. This
number rose to 118 by 1995. The period of 1984-1995 witnessed a high growth in
the establishment of industries. A significant number of those industries are still in
existence, and their activities greatly increased. The increased industrial activities
gave rise to industrial pollution.
Industrial pollution is considered one of the major issues in environmental
protection. Industries contribute to the pollution of the environment, especially in
the absence of regulations that force manufacturers to reduce their hazardous
Industrialization leads to rapidly expanding employment opportunities, a rise
of national income per capita, changes in the distribution of income, changes in the
domestic living and working condition, changes in social conduct and convention
and an overall significant impact on the health and stability of the economy.
However, industries contribute to the pollution of the environment through the
discharge of hazardous wastes. These pose potential hazard to humans, plants and
Nnewi is a densely populated town, rich in both commercial and industrial
activities. Over the last ten years, it has fastly grown from a village to an urban
centre. The rapid urbanization of the town is not without its attendant problems,
there is visible urban decay. Urban Development Authorities have not been
regulating developmental activities. A major consequence is that industries spring
up indiscriminately in all parts of the town without regulation. Production and waste
generation go on uncontrollably leading to massive pollution of both water and land
resources. PROMOTEX is an example of one such industrial establishment located
at the centre of the town. It produces soap and cosmetics and discharges its effluents
untreated into the Ele River, a major link to other sources of potable water in the
Over the years, successive changes have been observed around this Ele
River. These observations have stimulated the interest to undertake this study.
Consequent upon this, there is need to study the impact of these effluents on the
The study spanned a period of 4 months (July to October). Soil analysis and effluent
analysis were carried out. A total of 26 Parameters were analyzed for the effluent,
while a total of 14 Parameters were analyzed for the soil.
AIM: The aim of this study is to characterize the effluent wastes from
PROMOTEX industry and ascertain its impact on pollution of the Ele River and its
immediate environment.
OBJECTIVES: In order to achieve the aim of the study, the following objectives
were pursued. The specific objectives were to:
1. ascertain the raw materials and production processes employed at
PROMOTEX industry
2. establish the physiochemical constituents of effluents from PROMOTEX
3. establish the extent of pollutant inload and determine the impact of untreated
effluents from PROMOTEX on the soil and surface water quality of the
The availability of baseline data of pollutant indices is essential for waste
management, facility monitoring and environmental regulation.
The study will aid Policy makers in making policies that will protect the
environment from industrial activities, while still encouraging industrialization.
Environmental Managers will also find the study useful in the management of the
environment with a view to ensuring sustainable development.
Future researchers will find the study useful. The methodology that will be
adopted will serve as a basic guide for subsequent researches. The research will
also help to create environmental awareness of both the government and the
The study has the following limitations:
(a) FINANCE: Huge amount of money was needed to carry out a more detailed
research. The researcher therefore limited the work to the confines of her
financial ability.
(b) TIME: There is need to carry out study across the two seasons of the
year, but time constraint limited the work to four months.
The conceptual framework that was used is the hydrogeopollution cycle.
Hydrogeopollution cycle looks at cyclicity of hydrogeochemical pollutants via
the hydrologic cycle. This cycle explains the cyclic movement of water in the
outer part of the earth and reservoirs or the “storage tanks” where water may be
held in varying lengths of time (Egboka et al. 1989, Nnodu and Ilo, 2000). As
the water body moves in a cycle, it carries along with it, from point to point, the
geochemical elements of nature as shown in figure I.
When effluents are discharged from industries, they find their way into
surface waters through runoff and consequently pollute these water bodies.
Some of the effluents sip into the soil thereby impacting on the land.
Since a large number of industries are concentrated in Nnewi North Local
Government Area, and effluents from these industries are released to the
various sections of the environment, there is no doubt; these resultant
geochemical elements are circulated from one point of the hydrological cycle or
the other. Therefore, a research of this type was due for the area.




Water table Percolation
Fresh ground water Soil
Water Ocean

Rain Cloud
Cloud formation
Figure.1.THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE (SOURCE: Modified from Egboka, 1989).
The study area Nnewi, lies between Longitudes 6o 911
E and 6o 551 E
and Latitudes 6o 161N and 6o
101N. The climate is tropical. It has an average
annual rainfall of 200mm and mean temperature of 27oC. The months of April to
October experience heavy rainfall, while low rainfall, higher temperature and low
humidity characterize the months of November to February.
Nnewi generally is situated some 30 Kilometers Southeast part of Nigeria. It
is a highly commercial town, which has undergone rapid urbanization and
industrialization within the past two decades since the end of the Nigerian civil
war. The people are Igbos, though people from other ethnic groups like the Hausa,
Yoruba, etc. can be found. Industrialization has enjoyed priority status in this
locality as a requirement for modernization and economic progress. The rapid
urbanization, aggressive industrialization and the attendant uncontrolled population
growth have had deleterious impact on the environment. Nnewi is a high-density
commercial center east of the Niger. It has become synonymous with both local
and international trade. This commercial image has been enhanced in recent years
by the establishment of hundreds of small- and medium-scale industries. Often the
industries are sited without consideration for the effects of their effluents on
terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and without the approval of relevant authorities.
The untreated sewage and sludge have the potential to contaminate the aquatic
ecosystem because of their pollutant loads. Consequently, the health of the local
population, which depends on the water and food from farmlands close to these
industries, may be adversely affected.
There are many industries in Nnewi. One of the most prominate industries in
Nnewi is the Chicason group of industries. It is a conglomerate comprising RIMCO
(manufactuer of life vegetable oil) A-Z company (producers of greese, and oil
hydraulics) a plastic industry and PROMOTEX (specializes in soap and cosmetics
production). All these industries are established as an aggregate within the same
vicinity. Promotex was chosen as a case study because of its proximity to the Ele
River, and the fact that its effluents are discharged into the river.
Figure2. Map of Nigeria showing Anambra State
Figure 3. Map of Anambra State showing Nnewi North L.G.A.
Figure 4. Map of Nnewi North L. G. A. showing location of industry worked
To ensure clarity of understanding, the dissertation was organized into five
chapters. Chapter one shows a general introduction of the work; Chapter two
reviews the past works on the subject; the methodology of the study was shown in
Chapter three, while the results and discussions, data analysis were presented in
Chapter four. Chapter five shows the conclusion and recommendation. Finally, the
statistical calculations and the deduced tables were shown in the appendices.


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