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ABSTRACT
Inflammation is a complex biological response of
vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen,
damage cells or irritants. The urgency generated by in
increased rate of stroke, atheroselerosis attributed to
prolong use of cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 inhibitors have
acceralated anti-inflammatory drug research over the
last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents
continued to dominate research, attention increasingly
has been directed to natural products. These are often
more affordable and available and sometimes are
perceived as more effective than conventional antiinflammatory drugs.
Anti-inflammation was carried out using 11 rats. That
was divided into three groups of four rats each. Group 1
and 2 served as the positive and negative control
respectively. Groups 3 and 4 received 200mg/kg b.w
and 600mg/kg b.w. of the extracts respectively.
However, it was discovered that the stem bark of
crateva Adansonii showed greater significance antiinflammatory activity when compared with the standard.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – i
Certificate page – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – v
Table of contents – – – – – – – vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Types of inflammation – – – – – 2
1.2 Aims and objectives – – — – – 3
1.3 Rational study – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Taxonomy – – – – – – – 4
1.5 Physical description of crateva adansonii – 5
1.6 Distribution – – – – – – – 6
1.7 Cultivation – – – – – – – 6
1.8 Uses of crateva adansonii – – – – 7
7
1.9 Sources – – – – – – – – 7
CHAPTER TWO
Literature review – – – – – – – 8
2.1 types of inflammation – – – – – 8
2.2 Events in acute inflammation – – – 22
2.3 Increased blood flow and from – – – 26
2.4 Chemotaxis – – – – – – – 26
2.5 Eosinophils – – – – – – – 27
2.6 Benefit of inflammation – – – – – 29
2.7 Anti-inflammation agents – – – – 30
2.8 Steroids – – – – – – – – 30
2.9 Non-steroidal anti-inflammation drugs (NSAIDS) 31
2.10 Immune Selective Anti-Inflammatory
Derivatives (IMSAID) – – – – – – 33
2.11 Anti inflammatory diet – – – – 34
2.12 Natural anti-inflammatory supplements – 36
2.13 Benefits of non-sterodial anti- inflammatory 38
2.14 Mediators of information – – – – -39
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2.15 Cytokines – – – – – – – 41
2.16 Histamine – – – – – – – 42
2.17 Arachidonic acid – – – – – – 42
2.18 Nitric oxide – – – – – – – 45
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials – – – – – – – – 47
3.2 Methodology – – – – – – – 49
3.4 Column chromatography – – – – 50
3.5 Phytochemical analysis of the extract – – 58
3.6 Thin layer chromatograophy (TLC) – – 62
3.7 Anti-inflammatory activity test – – – 63
3.8 Thin layer chromatography (TLC) – – – 65
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 The effect of methanol fraction of methanol
extract of crateva adansonii ion acute inflammation
67
of rat paw.
9
4.2 Phytochemical analysis of extract – – – –
68
4.3 Phytochemical analysis of dichloromethane fraction
69
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CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Discussion – – – – – – – -70
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – -71
References
Appendix
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CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Anti inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or
treatment that reduces inflammation. Anti –inflammatory drugs
make up about half of analgesics, reducing pain by inhibiting
inflammation as opposed to opioids, which affect the central
nervous system published by Artemis Morris, molly Rossiter.
Inflammation (Latin, inflammo, “I ignite, set alight”) is part of
the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful
stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. The
classical signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling
and loss of function by Dr Weil. Inflammation is a protective
attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and
initiate the healing process.
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Inflammation is not a synonym for infection, even in cases where
inflammation is caused by infection. Although infection is caused
by a microorganism, and organism pathogen.
Inflammation is a setereotyped response and is considered as a
mechanism of innate immunity by Dr. Weil.
1.1 TYPES OF INFLAMMATION
Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute
inflammation, is the initial response of the body to harmful
stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and
leukocytes (especially granulocytes) from the blood into the
injured tissues.
Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads
to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of
inflammation and is characterized by simultaneous destruction
and healing of the tissues from the inflammatory process from
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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1.2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES.
Evaluation of the anti –inflammatory activity of crateva
adansonii (plant). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and
compare the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous sten bark
extract of crateva adansonii in experimental acute and chronic
inflammatory animal models. And to evaluate the phytochemical
constituents and pharmacological evaluation of the effect of
crateva adansonii on albino rats.
1.3 RATIONAL STUDY.
Crateva adansonii was described in 1824 by Augstin Pyramus de
candolle.
Crateva adansonii is a specie of a flowering tree in the
capparancea family, which is equally called the “sacred garlic
pear and temple plant,” and many other names in a variety of
dialects, including Balai lamoke, barnaj Vanina and bidasi. The
tree is sometimes called the spider tree because the showy
flowers bear long, spidery stamens. It is native to Japan,
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Australia, much of South East Asia and several south practice
Islands India it is grown else where for fruit, especially in parts of
the African continents.
The fruit of the tree is edible. The flowers are attractive to a
multitude of insects and birds. The butterfly (Hebomoia
glaucippe) is a frequent visitor to this plant by Dr. Weil.
1.4 TAXONOMY
Crateva Adansonii is a species in the genus crateva, which
contains 8 species and belongs to the family of Capparacea (caper
family)
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The taxonomy of crateva adansonii for classification includes the
following;
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angosperms
Class: Eudicots
sub-class: Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Capparaceae
Genus: Crateva
Species: C. religiosa
1.5 PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CRATEVA ADANSONII
Unarmed, small deciduous tree, 6-15m tall, glabrous leaves 3 –
foliolate, petiolate, leaflet shorty petiolulate, elliptic, elliptic –
lanceolate, more or les olique, acuminate/ narrowed towards the
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base, 5-12m long, (1-) 2.5 -6cm broad, herbaceous to
subcoriaceous, often turning brownish when dry, petiole (2.5) 4 –
8cm long flowers. 3-6cm across, sub irregular greenish white
turning yellowish after opening appearing before or just after the
flush of new leaves, pedicle 2-4cm long, 10-17mm wide, 2
adoxial ones generally what larger stamens usually 20-25,
gynophore generally 3-5cm long, slender thickened in fruit. Fruit
globose, 3-5cm in the development of fruit. Yellowish seeds
reinform at about 3-4mm in diam smooth brown. The flowers are
green and are arranged in racemes. The fruits are berries.
1.6 DISTRIBUTION
Crateva adansonii is native to tropical Africa, India, Srilanka,
Myanmar, Japan, Australia and much of South East Asia.
1.7 CULTIVATION
Crateva Adansonii can withstand temperatures only above 1 –
2
0C. The plants bloom from March to May.
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1.8 USES OF CRATEVA ADANSONII
Crateva adansonii is used in traditional medicine in the West
Africa. The crude Hexane (CAN -1) and ethyl acetate activity has
African trypanosome, Trypansomia brucei brikes and forms
blood stream. The crude extracts showed moderate antitrypansomal activity. It’s use alone or in combination with other
natural/ semi –synthetic drugs for the treatment of human Africa.
Crateva adansonii fruit serves as an edible fruit which contains
berries Published by Flora of Taiwan, National Taiwan
University.
1.9 SOURCES
From wikipedia,
The free encyclopedia
bing
pdf
and articles of Health.

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