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The antibacterial resistance patterns of salmonella species isolated from poultry droppings in imo state university of owerri (imsu) the samples comprises of egg shell, soil in poultry farm feather, faces, clocal swab were analyzed microbiologically. Isolation of salmonella was carried out on salmonella Shigella agar medium and identified according to their microscope and biochemical reaction bacterial isolates were obtained, identified and confirmed as salmonella species as identified from several biochemical examinations. The isolates were subtested to antibiotics susceptibility test using disc diffusion test on Mueller  Hinton Agar. High resistance was recorded against septrin(100%) chloramphednicol (100%), streptomycin (100%), taruid (100%), auginetin (100%), sparfloxacin(66%), ciprofloxacin (66%), Amoxacillon(91%), Gentermicin(91%) and pefloxacon(91%) plasmid profile was also carried out to determine and characterized antibiotics traits in these results reveal the presence of drug resistant salmonella in commercial poultry feeds in owerrl metropolis. This poultry farm feather, faeces, can serve as a channel for transfer of resistant strains of bacteria to poultry birds as well as human and the environment

feather, faeces, can serve as a channel for transfer of resistant strains of bacteria to poultry birds as well as human and the environment






1.0                     INTRODUCTION/ LITERATURE REVIEW       


Food-borne disease and food poisoning have increasily become a heath concern worldwide with species of  salmonella spp.  have for long been reported as leading cause of food borne infections (Whitwort et al., 2008). In developed and developing countries salmonella serotypes have been extensively incriminated as the most important zoonotic pathogens in several countries worldwide (Akinyemi et al., 2007). They are responsible for the significant morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals (Akinyemi et al., 2007), each year an estimated 1.3billion cases resulting to about 3million death occur worldwide due to salmonellosis alone (winkor et al., 2000). In spite of the important of poultry as the major element in the human food chain, it has been frequently labeled as one of the most important sources of food poisoning due to salmonella serovars causing the majority of food borne outbreaks worldwide (European food safety agency., 2004). Because of the importance of salmonella spp. As the cause of a food-borne disease, typing methods such as plasmid profiling have been used to trace the outbreak to the contaminated source for public health intervention (Akinyemi et al., 2007). Plasmid analysis has recently been used to investigate an outbreak of multi resistant (R-type Acssuspi) salmonella isolates from poultry products or used in solving outbreaks caused by other salmonella and hygiene as well as immunization and proper nutrition has provided major benefit in human life expectancy ( world health organization; 2002), however the increased utilization of antibioticsin both public and veterinary setting has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and as a conse avence poses a serious threat to public health safety (world health organization: 2002). The abuse of antibiotics around the globe for preservation of food materials treating animals with different kinds of disease or preventative purpose have selected for antibiotic resistant strains. These strains which exhibit drug resistant continue to multiply when challenged with an antibiotic (Ryder et al., 2013).

Enteric fever commonly known as typhoid fever, a systematic infection is one of the major disease caused by salmonella paratyphoid (Nataro et al: 2000). Animal faces are potential source of antibiotic resistant bacterial if released into the environment, resistant strains may contaminate water and food source which causes salmonella which can be a potential threat to human health (Pitout et al: 2009)when consumed. Poultry birds have frequently been incriminated as a means of salmonella contamination and conseavently acts as major source of pathogen in humans (Baevmler et al., 2000) when infection spread beyond the intestinal tract, appropriate anti-microbial therapy can be lifesaving (Shan and Korejo 2012). Today the industrialized countries have agreed that the development of bacterial resistance must be prevented in order to control the spread of these bacterial pathogen to human (Helmuth; 2000). According to (Abdellah et al., 2009) the extensive use of those in human and animals has led to an increased in bacterial multidrug resistant among several bacteria strains including salmonella in the developed world, the extensive use of antibiotics in agriculture, especially for prophylactic and growth promoting purposes, has generated much debate as to whether this practice contributes significantly to increased frequencies and dissemination of resistance genes into other eco-system (Carraminana et al., 2004) reported that 40% of the antibiotics produced in the united states were used in stock feeds. Bacterial isolates obtained by (Carraminana et al., 2004) from a poultry slaughter house in Spain had high percentages of resistance to many antibiotics. In developing countries like Nigeria, antibiotics are used only when necessary, especially of the animal fall, and only the sick ones treated in such cases (Nsofor and Iroegbu: 2013), there is currently a worldwide trend to reduce the use of antibiotic in animal food due to the contamination of meat product with antibiotic resides as well as the concern that some therapeutic treatments for human diseases might be jeopardize due to the appearance of resistant bacteria (Kabir, 2009). During the last decade, use of antimicrobial drugs for growth promotion and therapeutic treatment in food animals has received much attention. However even in the absence of heavy use of antibiotics, it is important to identify and monitor susceptibility profiles of bacterial isolates, particularly of commensal organisms. This according to (John and Fishman, 2002) will provide information on resistance trends including emerging antibiotic resistance which are essential for clinical practice. This singular factor has shown the need to probe further into the prevalence of antibiotic resistant organisms in poultry feed sold in Nigeria.


Salmonellosis is an infectious disease which often occurs through contaminated food, especially food products with an animal origin such as meat, chicken, egg, animal foods. In developing countries estimation of salmonellosis is difficult because there has not been sufficient surveillance, during the two past decades, the emergence of antibiotic resistant. Salmonella has become a serious problem worldwide. Wide usage of antibiotic in the diet of domestic animals has made drug resistant bacterial which could be transferred to human beings. In recent years, problem of resistant strains to multiple drugs (MOR) is increasing and most studies in Nigeria and other countries have shown high resistance of salmonella strains to several antibiotics. It is necessary to monitor the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of food-borne pathogens for effective food safety planning and targeted interventions.


  • To isolate, identify and characterize salmonella species from poultry product.
  • To determine the susceptibility pattern of salmonella species isolated from poultry product to some antibiotics.
  • To suggest measures that should be applied to reduce the risk of introducing salmonella species in poultry products.
  • To assess the public health implications of the poultry feeds.


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