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Title page                                                                                                    i

Approval page                                                                                                     ii

Certification                                                                                                         iii

Dedication                                                                                                            iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                              v

Table of contents                                                                                         vi

List of tables                                                                                               vii

Abstract                                                                                                     viii



1.1 Background of the study                                                                      1

1.2 Statement of the problem                                                                     3

1.3 Objectives of the study                                                                         3

1.4Research questions                                                                                          4                                                                                                                                                                                                  4

1.5 Significance of the study                                                                                4                                                                                                                          5                                          1.6 Limitations of the study                                                                                 5

1.7Definition of terms                                                                                          5

1.8 Scope of the study                                                                                         6




2.1 Conceptual Framework                                                                                  8

2.1.2 Concept of Policy                                                                              8

2.1.3 Concept of Public Policy                                                                             10

2.1.4 Concept of Policy Implementation                                                        11

2.1.5 Kinds of policy in Local Government Area                                           13

2.1.5 The Challenges of Public Policy                                                             14

2.2 A brief History of Oji River Local Government Area                                17

2.3 Actor Involved in Policy Making and Implementation in Local Government Area                                                                                                                          17

2.4 The Role of Local Government in Policy Making and Implementation           20

2.5 Empirical Review                                                                                      21

2.6 Gap in knowledge                                                                                     24

2.7 Theoretical Framework                                                                             25

2.8 Relevance of the theory to the study                                                        27


3.1 Research design                                                                                    28

3.2 Area of Study                                                                                                 28

3.3 Population of Study / population distribution                                               28

3.4 Instrument for Data Collection                                                             29

3.5 Validity of the instrument                                                                    29

3.6 Reliability of the instrument                                                                     30

3.7 Sampling technique                                                                              30

3.8 Sample size                                                                                           31

3.9 Method of data collection                                                                     32

3.10 Method of data analysis                                                                     32


4.1 Data presentation and analysis                                                            32


5.1 Summary of findings                                                                                      50
5.2 Conclusion                                                                                            52

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                52

Bibliography                                                                                              53

Appendix                                                                                                    56











Table 3.4 Population distribution                                                               29

Table 3.5 Sample size distribution                                                             29

Table 4.1 Distribution showing the instrument return rate                               32


Table 4.2 That showed the sex of the respondents                                          35

Table 4.3 Age distribution of respondents                                                     36

Table 4.4 Distribution of marital status of respondents                                  36

Table 4.5 Distribution showing the religion of the respondent                            37

Table 4.6 Distribution of academic qualification of respondents                         38

Table 4.7 Distribution of departments of respondents                               39

Table 4.8 Distribution showing length of service in the organization              40

 Table 4.9 Are the policies made in Oji River Local Government Area of good quality                                                                                                             40

Table 4.10 Are the policies implemented in Oji River Local Government Area of good quality                                                                                                     41

Table 4.11 Whether the policies made and implemented in Oji River Local Government Area were geared towards rural development                               42

 Table 4.12 Are there harsh policies made and implemented in Oji River Local Government Area                                                                                              42

Table 4.13 Do the policies made and implemented in Oji River Local Government Area affect the Staff positively?                                                                         43

Table 4.14 Does the policies made and implemented in Oji River Local Government bring development in the Area                                                        44                                                                                 

Table 4.15 Are there challenges in policy making and implementing in Oji River Local Government Area                                                                                    44

Table 4.16 Does State government interfere in policy making and implementation in Oji River Local Government Area                                                                  45

Table 4.17  Has the challenges been overcome                                                    46

Table 4.18 is lack of fund a challenge to policy implementation in Oji River Local Government Area?                                                                                              47

Table 4. 19 Do indiscipline, laziness, and corruption among Local Government workers constitute a challenge to policy implementation in Oji River Local Government Area?                                                                                               47

Table 4.20 Is staff motivation going to enhance the effectiveness of the policy making and implementation in Oji River Local Government Area

Table 4.21 Is increment in the staff salary going to enhance the effectiveness of the policy making and implementation in Oji River Local Government Area             48

Table 4.22 Is paying the staff when due going to enhance the effectiveness of the policy making and implementation in Oji River Local Government Area          49













This study focuses on the policy making and implementation in Oji River Local Government Area of Enugu State. The objectives of this work are to ascertain the quality of policies made and implemented in Oji River Local Government Area, To find out  the impact of the policies made and implemented, To discover the challenges facing the policy making and implementation and identify the possible way of enhancing the policy making and implementations. This work adopted descriptive survey and the researcher selected a sample of respondents from the population and administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire took the form of three point formula scales. The researcher used stratified random sampling technique and the sample size was found out using Taro Yamane formula. Through the respondents, the researcher was able to find out that though there are quality policies made in Oji River Local Government Area  they were unable to implement them due to inadequate resources; that policy making in the local government is facing a problem of interference from other levels of government; and that the staff are not paid promptly to enable them discharge their duties well. The researcher recommends that State Government should not in any form interfere in policy making and implementation in the local government; Efforts should be made to provide adequate funds needed for policy implementation; the Local Government staff should be disciplined and committed to their duties; and the Local Government Authority should device various ways to motivate the staff, increase their salaries and pay them promptly.   











                                                  CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background of the study

The need of localizing governance in the modern setting is on the need to bring governance closer to the people. This even as its functions and relevance sometimes overlap with those of other levels of government, it is still seen as a way of making governance more efficient and effective in a democratic system of government. Local government is the government at the grassroots near enough and with the people, and therefore better able to articulate and tackle the problems of the citizenry. In the words of Chukwuemeka (2013) ‘local government is a government department and essential organ or arm of the bureaucracy at the lowest level. Technically, it is a public organization authorized to achieve and administer a limited range of public policy in a relatively smaller territory, which is a sub division of the national government.’ The existence of local government recognizes the capacity of the local people to understand and conduct their own local affairs. The people themselves are more able to secure a closer adaptation of public services to local needs than the central or state governments, looking at the locality from afar. The continuous emphasis on policy making and implementation in the local government is understandable as Chukwuemeka (2013) said that ‘local government is in a far better position than the national or state government to stimulate initiatives, inculcate that feeling of national consciousness and encourage drive and experimentation in the people. Public policy involves development of formal policy statements that are viewed as legitimate. (Denhardt and Denhardt, (2009) Public policy making process is an attempt to examine and diagnose what a problem means, how an issue can be made out of the problem and solutions found for such social problems. (Ugwu, 2006) Nigeria is faced with so many problems, and these problems could be in the area of policies, commerce, education, agriculture, communication, housing, transportation, health, and other many problems such as terrorism; unemployment, kidnapping, and government make policies to help reduce these problems. Ugwu (2006) also posited that policy implementation is concerned with the process of giving effect to policy so that the objectives of the policy can be achieved. The implementation problem facing developing countries is the problem of a widening gap between policy intentions and outcomes. According to Dialoke, Ukah, and Maduagwuna (2017) Implementation gap begins with distances between formulated policy goals and the achieving of such planned goals. It is also vital to consider policy questions in the particular context in which they arise, both in terms of the general politics of the problem and the value and powers of the policy-makers. The importance of local government administration cannot be over emphasized especially in less developed country such as Nigeria. The existence of local government remains a sine-qua-non for grass root development through effective and efficient policy making and implementation.


Government has failed in recent times to achieve important tasks of ensuring the development of the economy due mainly to poor policy making and implementation process. The importance of well articulated policy can never be over emphasized in the growth of any economy. One of the major problems of most government policies is the lack of adequate and well informed policy makers who possess the technical know-how needed for the job. Other problems include: lack of financial resources, government attitude, ethnicity and favoritism, poor leadership. Moreover, some policies end up not achieving the main reason for which they were instituted. The policy makers tend to divert funds meant for pursuing policies for selfish interests. However, policy implementation is the greatest problem facing policy process especially in developing countries, there is always a wide gap between policy formulation and policy implementation, in developing countries such as Nigeria, there are several brilliant policies formulated, but such policies have been rubbished by poor implementation.       (Ugwu, 2006) Despite recommendations made by many reforms, the problems remained unresolved. The need to find the causes and solutions to the challenges gave rise to this research.


The general objective of this study is to examine policy making and implementation particularly in Orji River Local Government Area of Enugu State.

The specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To investigate the quality of policies made and implemented in Oji River Local Government Area.
  2. To find out the impact of policies made and implemented in Oji River Local Government Area.
  3. To investigate the challenges of policy making and implementation in Oji River Local Government Area.
  4. To identify alternative measures for enhancing effective policy making and implementation in Orji River Local Government Area.


  1. What is the quality of policies made and implemented in Orji River Local Government Area?
  2. What are the impacts of policies made and implemented in Oji River Local Government Area?
  3. What are the challenges facing policy making and implementation in Orji River Local Government Area?
  4. What alternative measures could be used for enhancing effective policy making and implementations in Orji River Local Government Area?


This study will add to the body of knowledge and increase the existing literature in the area of policy making and implementation generally in Nigeria and particularly in Orji River Local Government Area of Enugu State. It will also be beneficial to students and other researchers as information in this work will help to widen their knowledge for further research. This work will also help policy makers to modify the ways and approaches used in policy making and implementation. It will also help them in the improvement and management of resources in public sector.


This study covered policy making and implementation. It particularly focused on Orji River Local Government Area of Enugu State.


TIME: One of the major problems encountered by the researcher was time because the researcher had to combine research work with other activities. The research was able to draft a timetable that helped her managed her time properly.

FINANCE: the unavailability of money posed a great problem to the researcher, especially in acquiring the necessary materials for the research. The researcher had to take a student loan which will be paid back upon graduation. Furthermore, most of the personnel in local government offices were reluctant in answering the questions addressed to them. The researcher was able to gather information from the personnel who were able to respond to the question addressed to them.

LACK OF REGULARITY OF THE CIVIL SERVANTS: a good number of civil servants do not always come to work to enable the researcher get the information needed for the work, that results in time and finance wasting. But the researcher was able to overcome by constantly visiting the local government until the information needed was obtained.



Policy-Making is the formulation of ideas or plans that are used by an organization or government as a basis for making decisions.


Impact / Policy Impact are the effect that government policy and its administrative practices can have on something.


Public Policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.


Policy Evaluation is a principles and methods to examine the content, implementation or impact of a policy. It is also the activity through which we develop an understanding of the merit, worth, and utility of a policy.


Policy Implementation is the third stage of policy cycle its means the stage of the policy process immediately after the passage of a law, or the action that will be taken to put the law into effect or that the problem will be so


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