This research study is on the topic Printing Press in Nigeria, Problem and Prospect, a case study of University of Maiduguri Printing Press. The study revealed the evolution of printing press in Nigeria, a brief history of University of Maiduguri printing press and the services it renders to its community was highlighted. The study also revealed the general problems that hinder the development of printing press under study five objectives and five questions guided the conduct of the study. Recommendations were provided in order to enhance the services of the printing press. It was discovered the printing press is of paramount importance to the various communities in Borno state and therefore need urgent attention from the university administration.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vii
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – – 1
1.1.1 Advantages of Printing over Traditional – – – 2
1.1.2 The Evolution of Printing in Nigeria – – – – 6
1.1.3 Brief History of the University of Maiduguri Printing Press 7
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – 9
1.3 Objective of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.4 Research Question – – – – – – 10
1.5 The Significance of the Study – – – – – 11
1.6 Scope and Limitation – – – – – – 11
1.7 Operation Definition – – – – – – 12
Reference – – – – – – – 13
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction – – – – – – – – 14
2.1 Factors that contributed to the establishment of the University of Maiduguri Printing Press – – – – – – 16
2.2 Factors or method that contributed to the growth or otherwise of University of Maiduguri pitting press – – – 17
2.3 Types of Printing Services Provided by the University of
Maiduguri Printing Press – – – – – 20
2.4 Problems Faced by the Printing Press – – – – 23
References – – – – – – – – 27
3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 29
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – 29
3.2 Population and Sample – – – – – – 30
3.3 Research Instruments – – – – – – 30
3.3.1 Interview – – – – – – – – 31
3.3.2 Questionnaire – – – – – – – 31
3.3.3 Observation – – – – – – – – 31
3.4 Procedure of Data Collection – – – – – 32
3.5 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 32
References – – – – – – – – 33
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis – – – – – 34
4.1 Analysis of Data – – – – – – – 34
4.2 Finding of the Study – – – – – – 43
4.3 Discussion – – – – – – – – 44
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 47
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 48
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – – 49
Bibliography – – – – – – – 51
This chapter basically provide a general views of what the research work entails what is to be investigated and to analyse the problems and prospects of the University of Maiduguri Printing Press. Encyclopedia Americana (2007) defines printing as “The art and technology of reproducing words and pictures on papers cloth or other surfaces”. Although, there is considerable variation n printing methods, printing typically involves a printing press that transfers an image from a printing plate or similar images scanning surface to the materials being printed.
1.1 Background of the Study
Books before and after the Gutenberg Bible.
In a similar vein, Clem J. and Link P. (2006) explain that, the printed product created by the digital press required less setup for production than traditional printing method. For appropriately 4,500 years before Gutenberg invented the printing press books were produced by hand. They were written on surfaces of clay tablets, Papyrus, wax, and parchment. Lawbook, works of philosophy and science, great comedies and tragedies were all pains takingly copied and all too often lost through war and neglect. The invention of the movable types and the printing of the Gutenberg Bible, however, completely revolutionalized the accessibility of knowledge in the western world.
The spread of Gutenberg new technology was rapid, leading to an increase in the availability of books, the standardization of grammar and spelling in languages other than Latin, and sharing of arts and technology.
Afolabi, (2008) in his analysis of the effect of technology on the printing media industry in Nigeria noted that, technological changes in the industry have been spurred by printing buyers demand for high quality colour reproduction, before and contemporary with the Gutembergs Bible, and comparing them to printed sources from 50-100 years later, students were beginning to learn about the historical and cultural context of the technology of writing and importance of John Gutembergs invention.
Subtractive manufacturing is the process of beginning with more materials than is needed and selectively removing what is not required until the final shape emerges this process is easily explained by using marble sculptures of the famous artise, Michelengelo (1976) as an example when asked by the Pope how he made his statue of David so beautifully life like, he replied “I simply remove everything that doesn’t look like David”. This is the basic principles of substantive manufacturing, on the other hand, is the process of producing objects by adding only what is needed, along with any support materials required. The most common way to do this is by placing very thin layers of materials on top of one another to stock up and form the final objects like layers of a cake. This process dramatically reduces the time, cost and waste produced from its subtractive competitor, and allows much more efficient production process.
Printing: Funk and Wagals standards dictionary (1968) examine printing as the act of processing or the business of producing books, newspapers or periodicals by impression from words or other matter in printed form. It is concerned with making impression, mark through the use of types.
1.1.1 Advantages of Printing over Traditional
R, AND, D, Prototyping and Testing
Digital printing, NAPLP. 9 and Talcott, J. (2004) stated that, this is one of the biggest and most immediate advantages of using additive contraction techniques is the ability to create a limited number of test designs and models. To previously create these promise versions of products would have been a time consuming and costly process. This also greatly reduces the time spent developing new products, not to mention the amount people needed to fabricate a new concepts into a working prototypes.
Reduction in Production Waste
By the nature of how it works (using only what is needed), additive manufacturing greatly reduces the waste incurred by traditional tooling methods. When les waste materials is produced, not only are less raw materials used but the need to remove, transport and discard waste by products, is reduced to a bare minimum, as tool is the carbon foot print.
Spare Parts and Repairs
With any physical products there will be a need to have a stock file of spare parts to allow consumers and professionals to repair their products in the event they break or are damaged. The cost of producing storing and distributing these spare parts can be enormous, but with home manufacturing, spare parts could be down loaded and made at home the cost is reduced greatly by efficiently supporting spare, as only the parts needed would ever be made.
Final Fabrication and Distribution
For now, short run and individual products can be fabricated without the need of building a new assembly line or tooling machines which greatly reducing the cost of these smaller scale productions.
A Change of Business Model
Kiphhen, H. (2001) says that, the traditional printing companies have to release their products lines and continually ask themselves pertinent questions. What new computer based product will sell in todays market? How much should be invested? Who are the audience and how can they be reached? The answers to these questions will determine the winners and losers in the new information environment specifically Nigeria printers must start to view and position themselves as print communication providers rather than print commodity manufacturers. In other words, Nigeria printer must continuously redefine their business in order to prosper in the future. In very practical terms, it means print media operators must be more innovative and take a broader view of their business.
1.1.2 The Evolution of Printing in Nigeria
Daramola, Ifedayo, (2006) stated that, from the 19th century marked the beginning of the evolution of printing in Nigeria. Precisely in 1846, two missionaries Hope Waddel, with the help of his assistant Samule Elgerly, (1867) established the first printing press at Calabara, South Eastern Nigeria. The Hope Waddel Press, as the press was later named, was used for the mass production of religious tracks and booklets. The missionaries Rev. Herry Townsend, (1854) raise the bar when he established another press in the western part of the country in 1855. He also started a school of printing where he trained pupils at Abeokuta. Five years newspapers in Nigeria unfortunately, the mission printing press established by Townsend Folded up in 1867 due to the cultural and political crisis that erupted between the Egba people and the European setters.
Aside from the missionaries and the newspaper publishers another vital influence on the fledging printing industry in Nigeria at the early period was the colonial government. The first government printing House was established at broad street, Lagos in 1914. It provided stationary materials to the government; during the colonial era four government press offices were established at Enugu, Ibadan, Cameroon and Lagos. It had initial staff strength of less than two hundred. However, by 1933, the production capacity of the press had improved tremendously – production later includes trade journals, letter of credence, whitepaper, rules and regulations, treasury books and forms etc.
The later, 1980 and the early 1990s featured the era of computers with various types of hi-tech printing equipment emerging on the printing industry landscape, available records indicate that task systems in 1987, pioneered desktop publishing and computer graphics in Nigeria, with apply computers 9 todays the printing industry is lingely driven by computer technology, resulting in better print quality, faster production and higher profit for print investors.
1.1.3 Brief History of the University of Maiduguri Printing Press
University of Maiduguri is one of the seven (7) institutions of higher learning established by the federal military government of Nigeria in 1975 as part of the third national development plan. At its inception, the university had no structure of it own. The university then took over the North-east College of Arts and Science (N.E.C.A.S) library staff, residential houses and other supporting services were also inherited which made it possible for the university to commence its degree programmes in October 1975, but there was no printing press at the time of inception of the degree programmes. However, the idea to have an ideal printing press was conceived by the governing council. In 1982, Professor J. Aminu then Vice Chancellor approved the establishment of a printing press in 1982.
Mallam Bakari Song was appointed the printing press manager. Since the establishment of the printing press in 1982, there was no effective operation until 1985. Throughout that period, the university depends solely on outsiders for its printing matters. The bell press Mubi was one of the best printing firms that the university patronized before the inception of the University of Maiduguri Printing press.
In 1982, and 1987 respectively the university management was the opinion that the firms should be expanded because of the increase in number of course on campus. This means books (examination sheets, receipts postal) were needed by students and other private and public organizations for their transaction. Additional machines were imported and installed in the printing house for mass production to reduce outside printing expenses.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This research work focuses on the problems and prospect of printing press in Nigeria with particular reference to university of Maiduguri printing press, since the inception of the press in 1982. It has not shown any significant development in terms of productivity.
This study therefore sought to investigate the factors that inhibited the printing press from maximal performance as is expected of a printing press of that nature. At the end of the study suggestion will be proper which if Implemented will bring about improvement in the production capacity of the company.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The primary objective of the study are as follows:
- To find out the factors that contributed to the establishment of the university of Maiduguri printing press.
- To identify the factors that contributed to the growth or otherwise of university of Maiduguri printing press.
- To investigate the types of service provided by the University of Maiduguri printing press.
- To identify the problems faced by the printing press.
- To offer possible solution to the printing press.
1.4 Research Question
The research questions are as follow:
- What are the factors that necessitated the establishment of the university of Maiduguri printing press.
- What are the services provided by university of Maiduguri printing press?
- What are the factors that contributed to the growth of the university of Maiduguri printing press?
- What are the problems militating against university of Maiduguri printing press?
- What are the possible ways through which such problems can be reduced to the bearer minimum?
1.5 The Significance of the Study
This project on completion will serve as a guide to the university of Maiduguri authority and researchers who want to conduct research on similar topic associated with printing press in Nigeria particularly that of university of Maiduguri printing press.
It will also enlighten the readers on what printing means, how and why it come into being and its economically contribution to the institution and also government at large. The study is useful to the society and researcher to know more about printing press. Finally it will enable the printing press under study to identify areas of weakness and provide solutions to the problems faced by the university of Maiduguri printing press.
1.6 Scope and Limitation
The scope of this research work covers the problems and prospect of printing press and it is limited to the university of Maiduguri printing press only. It study tried to view the developmental stages of the printing press from the inception to date.
1.7 Operation Definition
Printing: Printing is a process for production of text and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is also a process of producing written, matter or pictures, such as books, magazines or newspapers by stamping ink or dye from movable type, plate, or blocks.
Printing Press: This refer to a machines that transfers lettering or images by contact with various forms of inked surface auto paper or similar materials fed into in various ways the device is used for printing many copies of a text on paper.
Industry: This is a section of an economic that is concerned with manufacturing of goods.
Printing Press: It is defined as any group of factories engaged in some types of publications and which employs the some process of production.
Encyclopedia Americana, (2007) Dansuwi, Groien Inc-vol, No.22, P. 601.
Clen J. and Link P. (2005). Prepress for Digital Printing: An Introduction to Prepress Methods for the Digital age United State: Xerox Corporation. P. viii.
Afolabi, A. (2008). ICT: Driving the Printing Media Industry in Nigeria. Technology times.
Michelengelo, (2006) History and Development of Mass Media in Nigeria. Lagos: Rathan Press Ltd. P.11.
Digital Printing, NAPL, P. 9 and Talcott, J. (2004). Designers Prepress Companion, New Tersey: National Association for Printing Leadership P. 166.
Kipphan, H. (2001), Handbooks of Printing Media: Technologies and Production Method Berlin Springer P. 593.
Daramola, Ifedayo, (2006). History of The Nigerian Press, in the Story of the Daily times 1926-1976. Lagos. Daily Times of Nigeria Ltd. P.7.
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