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Table of Contents
Title Page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Table of contents vii
List of tables viii
Abstract i
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 5
1.3 Objectives of the study 6
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Scope of study 6
1.6 Significance of the study 7
1.7 Operational Definition of Significant Terms 7
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Review of Concepts 8
2.2.1 Concept of conflict 8
2.2.2 Concept of conflict management 12
2.2.3 Concept Conflict Resolution 13
2.2.4 Concept of Broadcasting 19
2.3 Review of Related Studies 25
2.4 Theoretical Framework 27
2.5 Summary 28
3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Research Design 29
3.3 Population of the study 29
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique 30
3.5 Description of the Research Instrument 32
3.6 Validity of Data Gathering Instrument 33
3.7 Method of Data Collection 33
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 33
4.1 Introduction 33
4.2 Analysis of Demographic Data 34
4.3 Discussion of Finding 48
5.1 Introduction 52
5.2 Summary of Findings 52
5.3 Conclusion 53
5.4 Recommendations 53
5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies 54
Reference 55
Appendix A 57
Appendix B 58
List of Tables
Demography Data Table
Table 1: What is your sex? 27
Table 2: What is your age bracket? 28
Table 3: What is your marital status? 28
Table 4: What is your educational qualification? 29
Table 5: What is your occupation? 29
Table 6: Do you own radio, television or smart phone? 30
Table 7: Do you have access to ESBS? 30
Table 8: How often do you listen to ESBS? 31
Table 9: What do you understand by conflict resolution? 31
Table 10: What are the major causes of conflict? 32
Table 11: Have you witnessed any conflict in your ward? 32
Table 12: Does the state government play any role to conflict resolution in ESBS? 33
Table 13: Do you agree that the state government interfere in ESBS affairs? 33
Table 14: Have you listened to any anti-conflict messages? 34
Table 15: How convincing are the anti-conflict messages? 34
Table 16: Does ESBS shape your perception on conflict resolution? 35
Table 17: Which of the programmes contributes to conflict resolution in Enugu North?35
Table 18: Which do you prefer? 36
Table 19: How has ESBS contributed to conflict resolution? 36
The aim of this study was to analyze the Role of Enugu State Broadcasting Service in Conflict
Resolution. (A study of Enugu North).To achieve this aim, the survey research method was used.
Subjects were drawn from the audience of Enugu North, using simple random sampling
technique and purposive sampling technique. Four research questions guided the study. Research
findings showed that Enugu State Broadcasting Service has contributed greatly to conflict
resolution through the programmes they aired. The research also found out that there is a high
level of the state government interference in ESBS affairs. To this end, the researcher
recommended that the level of interference of the state government in the affairs of ESBS should
be at minimum to ensure efficiency in their discharge of duties. The researcher suggested that
further studies should be carried out on the impact of ESBS in sustainable programmes on
conflict resolution. Programmes that aid conflict resolution should be appropriately sponsored to
make for continuity.
1.1 Background of the Study
Human beings as social animals have always been embroiled in temporary and
continuous disputes and fracas collectively called conflicts since time immemorial. This come in
the form of individuals against individuals, families against families, kingdoms against
kingdoms, and more contemporary, countries against countries. Boulding, K. (1989).
According to Pruitt and Robbins, (2002). Conflict can be defined as “The perceiveddivergence of
interest, or a belief that the party‟s current aspirations cannot be achieved simultaneously from
gradual interactions between the parties. They are ultimately a direct result of the given
relationships and interactions between species, will in one way or another breed friction and
discontent thereby, giving rise to perceived injustice and the attendant frictions and agitations.
Bercovitch, J. (2002).
However,the need to be recognized as a member of a unit is such a functional social
factor, that any attempt or perceived attempt to undo or ridicule the natural statutes, breeds
divergent and friction thereby gradually heating up the system to a toxic edge. Wilson,K.(1988).
Thus, minimizing this friction has become imperative as it has seldom proved impossible
to eliminate. This redemption notion has given birth to the theory of “ConflictResolution‟‟ a
brain child of the need for stakeholders to work out a route of any conflict.
Brief History ofEnugu StateBroadcasting Service [ESBS]
Enugu State Broadcasting Servicescomprises ofradio and television outfit. It has been in
existence since independence in the Eastern part of Nigeria since 1960. Enugu State
Broadcasting Service was formally known as Eastern Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation
[ENBC]. Eastern Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation television consisted of a two camera studio
and control room, television with a 100 Watts television transmitter.
During the Nigeria Civil War, ENBC was known as Radio Biafran. The challenges of the
war put the ability and technology to the acid test. The corporation retained its name as Eastern
Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation till the end of the Nigeria Civil War in 1970. It was later recalled, East Central State Broadcasting Service [ECBS], to reflect its ownership by the news
which was carved out from the Eastern region.
But with the creation of new Anambra and Enugu State in 1991, and the subsequent
disengagement of the staff on March 16,1992, the Anambra Broadcasting Service Enugu Awka
and Enugu State Broadcasting Services [ESBS]. Mr. Peter Prouman was its first director
general.Enugu State Broadcasting Service was established for effective information
dissemination in all parts of the state. It was to bridge the information gap between the
government and the governed from rural to urban areasin order to stimulate interest between
government and rural folks.It is in the light of the above that the study is designed to measure the
“The Role of Enugu State Broadcasting Service in Conflict Resolution.‟‟
Conflict resolution is generally conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in
facilitating the peaceful resolution or ending of conflict.
Often, committed group of members attempt to resolve group
conflicts by actively communicatingInformation about their
conflictingmotives or ideologies to the rest of the group. By
thismeans, they tender their intentions and reasonsfor certain
beliefs, engaging in collective negotiationsthat are intended to
end the conflict or crisis.
The term “conflict resolution” may also be used interchangeably with dispute resolution,
where arbitration and litigation processes are critically involved.Burton,J.(2002). In Nigeria ,and
Enugu to be precise, conflicts which have had menacing effects on the life the people , especially
conflicting communities or parties ,have always been resolved by the direct intervention of
The government intervention comes in the form of direct deployment of military and
paramilitary personnel‟s in war-prone conflicting areas, negotiations committees that reach out
to the elders(stakeholders) of the conflicting parties or by the use of media, through anti-conflict
propaganda messages.Dentsch,M. (1983).
History of Conflicts
Axelrod, Robert. (1984). Observed that;
Competition among and between species,for food,
habitats, mates,and general Survival are
functionally implicit in theProcess of evolution,
and hence, intrinsic to their existence as living
things,Prone to social and community friction.
This clearly reflects the functional imperativeness of conflicts as a social feature of any group
where interactions exist. The history of conflicts therefore, is as old as man himself.
Biblically, conflict arose in the Garden of Eden, when Adam and Eve disobeyed
God‟s“supreme injunction” not to eat of the fruit in the middle of the garden.(The forbidden
fruit)”. His disobedience was recorded to have ensued a brawl between him, his wife (Eve) and
God, the creator, prompting the later to met punitive measures on the disobedient pair.
Subsequently, civilized conflicts and wars can be historically traced to the Paleolithic and
Neolithic era. Bronoski, R.(1978).Reflects that, “Early conflicts of the Neolithic era, emanated
spontaneously from a contest to control the surpluses and resources discovered by man in that
Conflict of old as much as those of contemporary era had stemmed also from the selfish
divergence of views, in the form of political ideologies, religious differences and ethnic and
social factors.
Documented conflicts can also be traced from the Punic wars to the Greco-Persian
conflicts, to the Barbarian invasions of the Romans, to the Crusaders of the Arab world, the
Northern wars, the French wars, the Nazi wars, the Isreali-Palestine conflict, the independence
and insurgency wars, and most recently terrorist conflicts. Boulding,Kenneth. (1962).
In Nigeria, conflicts most notably can be traced back to the post -colonial era, with the
Biafra civil war, the most prominent example. There have been several conflicts in religions
relating to certain agitations by seemingly aggrieved parties. This could be Trans-ethnic or Intraethnic. Chinua, A. (2012).Enugu State has also had its fair share of conflicts most notably among
them include, the Umuode Community Crisis, Udi Community Crisis and the notorious Oruku
Kingdom Crisis.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The prevalence of conflict in the world and particularly in the African Sub-region has
been a major source of concern to individuals, families and the society at large. People have
become apprehensive about the negative consequences of conflict, due to the way and manner it
erupts in our society.
However, the media have also been noted for its dysfunctional roles in the society. Since
the media seek to mould the opinion of users, it is logical that their negative roles would have
negative effects on society. Although the media to a large extent indeed play biggest role of
ensuring that conflicts or any particular conflict receives wide public attention.
The question this research work seeks to answer therefore is,what role does Enugu State
Broadcasting Service play in Conflict Resolution in Enugu North?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1. To determine the reach of audience base of Enugu North to ESBS.
2. To know the meaning and concept of conflict resolution.
3. To find out the level of interference of the state government in ESBS affairs.
4. To determine the contributions of ESBS toconflict resolution in Enugu North.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the reach of audience base of Enugu North to ESBS?
2. What is the meaning of the concept of conflict resolution?
3. To what extent does the state government interfere in ESBS affairs?
4. How has ESBS contributed to conflict resolution in Enugu North?
1.5 Scope of the Study
The essence of this research work is to primarily study The Role of Enugu State
Broadcasting Service in Conflict Resolution. A study of Enugu North. The study intended to
focus on conflict resolution in Enugu North local government area for easy analysis of data. This
will reduce cost and avoid complexity which may arise due to a very large population.
However, the findings of the study will be based on the indigents of Enugu North, since
they all have similar characteristics.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Studies on conflict and conflict resolution matters are of paramount importance to
everyone,the conflicting parties, the government, non-waring parties etc. This study formed a
documented framework exposing the ills and dangers of scourage and recommending ways to
avert or sustain such occurrences in the future.
1.7 Operational Definition of Significant Terms
Conflict: Refers to disagreement or discontent between two parties usually due to perceived
disadvantage by one of the parties. Conflict can be in form of disputes or crisis or extremely,
Propaganda: It is a message designed to persuade the intended audience to think and behave in a
certain manner, preferably as planned by the broadcaster of the message.
Hydra-Headed: This refers to the complexity of an issue. That is, issues that assume multidimensional twist are said to be hydra-headed.
Reportage:This refers to the texture of what is being broadcast.


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