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Content Page
Title Page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Approval Page iv
Dedication v
Acknowledgement vii
Table of content viii
List of tables x
Abstract xi

1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problems 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study 6
1.4 Significance of the Study 7
1.5 Research Hypotheses 8
1.6 Scope of Study 9
1.7 Limitation of the Study 9
1.8 Definition of Terms 9
2.1 Sources of Literature 11
2.2 Review of Relevant Literature 11
2.3 Media and Gender Stereotyping 12
2.4 What Causes Inequality 16
2.5 Theoretical Framework 19
2.6 Summary of Literature Review 20
3.1 Introduction 22
3.2 Research Method 22
3.3 Area of Study 24
3.4 Population of the Study 24
3.5 Sample Size 25
3.6 Sampling Technique 25
3.7 Instrument of Data Collected 26
3.8 Method of Data Collection 26
3.9 Method of Data Analysis 26
3.10 Expected Result 27
4.1 Introduction 28
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis 37
4.3 Analysis of Research Questions 40
4.4 Discussion of Findings 42
5.1 Introduction 44
5.2 Summary 44
5.3 Conclusion 45
5.4 Recommendations 45
References 47
Appendix I
Appendix II
Table 1: Sex of Respondent 28
Table 2: Marital status of the respondent. 29
Table 3: Age Bracket. 29
Table 4: Occupation of respondent. 30
Table 5: Academic Qualification. 30
Table 6: Do you Agree that Nigerian Television Authority (NTA)
Programme in women in focus promote the quest for
gender equality. 31
Table 7: Do you watch Nigerian Television Authority (NTA)
Women in focus programme. 31
Table 8: Do you believe that the astute and vibrant nature of women
in Akpugo is associated with Nigerian television authority
(NTA) Programme in gender equality. 32
Table 9: Do you believe that Nigerian Television Authority (NTA)
on foot print programme can help to promote gender equality. 32
Table 10: Do you think that Nigerian television authority (NTA) play a
vital role in promoting gender equality in Akpugo
Table 11: Do you Agree that Nigerian Television Authority (NTA)
Enugu face challenges in promoting gender equality in Akpugo
community in Nkanu West Local Government Area. 34
Table 12: Do you believe that the participation of women in
development programme in Akpugo could be associated with
Nigerian Television Authority foot- print programme . 12
Table 13: Do you think that the leadership style in the Nigerian
Television Authority (NTA) can cause gender imbalance. 35
Table 14: Do you agree that the location of Akpugo in Nkanu West
Local Government Area is a hindrance to Nigerian Television
Authority (NTA) Enugu to effectively inform the people of gender
equality. 36
Table 15: Do you think that women are being victimized by the
Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Enugu. 37
This study centers on finding out the Role of Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) in
promoting gender equality. Using Akpugo community in Nkanu West Local Government
Area Enugu State as a study area. The researcher used survey research method as the method
of data collection. This is so because it is very appropriate in studying population like
Akpugo community that is too large to be studied. Directly the population of the study area is
estimated as 72,264 people from which the sample size 278 was selected. Random sampling
techniques were used to select individuals whose opinions and views were used to draw
interference to the entire population. Data gathered from the study were analyzed, tested and
interpreted using simple percentage, frequency tables and chi-square goodness of the fit test
which is used to test the hypothesis. Findings from the study show that there is still disparity
on the issue of gender balancing. The theory that led support to this work is agenda setting
theory. Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation were made on the study for
further studies. One of the recommendation is that more attention should be paid to basic
education, programmes for women especially women in rural and moonshines areas.
1.1 Background of the Study
Nigerian Television Authority is related to mass media because without mass media
Nigerian television authority cannot perform in vacuum or be well known. So mass media
apart from its Educating, Entertaining is a very important tool of communicating through
which information is passed to the even to the farthest end of the world.
Mass media enable us to communicate with each other by helping us over come the barrier
of time and space. They perform both primary and secondary functions for the society.
Mass media functions in various ways, first mass media keep us well informed of the
happening around that is about day to day happening in our society or community. The mass
media also persuade us mostly through advertisement. As we can see newspaper, magazine
and television are fill with all kinds of powerful persuasive advertisement which tempt us to
buy their product.
Also the mass media gives us entertainment. Television and Radio broadcasting provides
us with a big variety of programs which both educate and entertain us.
Through mass media one can easily be mobilized .mass media has really help us in our
society because of this reason society cannot exist without mass media, it also makes one to
be more knowledgeable.
So because of this programs commercials, reports, broadcasting etc are either done by men
or women which they feel promotes such media function by getting more audience to view,
read and listen in other to be informed about day to day happening in our community or
Thereby in Eliminating gender inequality in media report or programs. Getting the
balance right is an illustrated resources handbook by UNESCO which deals with gender
issues in media, the document access the key challenges faced by female journalists and the
need to create policies for ensuring more equality in mainstream media Collen Lowe Morna
(2002) in his book, promoting gender equality in and through the media said that women in
developing nations are finding that whatever they gains in the traditional media, such as print
and broadcasting, a lack of training opportunities in new technologies and difficult in
accessing expensive equipment increase the marginalization of women in the new electronic
media, it went further to say that men traditionally are early adopters, especially when it
comes to social media women are at the fore front. This assertion shows that men and
women have their part or area of specialization in the world of communication and
Therefore the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) has to study both sexes in trying to
perform it’s media functions. This research work is built on a various analysis on report all
over the world about the role of Nigerian Television Authority in promoting gender equality
in Akpugo community in Nkanu west local government Area.
Akpugo community in Nkanu West Local Government Area Enugu State is a very large
community in Nkanu. It is located in Nkanu west local government Area of Enugu state.
They share boundary with Agbani, Ugbawka, Amagunze, Ihuokpara, Akpofu, Ugwuoji,
Oruku and Emene Nike etc..
The population is about 72,264, the adult among them are mostly subsistence farmers and
petty traders, and they have a market where people are selling their product instead of
hawking their products. They do not have factories or any other establishment that can get
people employed, they only have small scale business and for this reason most of their youths
migrate to the cities in search of better life and greener pasture, that is they prefer to go to the
city in search of white man cola job.
In Akpugo community they have elite people, they are Educated and learned. They have
professionals to the extend that the professor of Electronic where born in Akpugo village but
his late now. Akpugo people are highly industries and intelligent, they don’t depend on
people and they are fearless human being and because of this they can survive in any
environment they found themselves.
Akpugo people do observe all the culture of the Nkanu land, they observe Igbo
tradition and other thing that Amechi people do like chieftaincy title, New yam festival,
Coronation of Igwe (king) and also their land is very fertile. Akpugo community was
existing before the coming of colonial master. They cultivate water yam, palm wine, palm
kernel they have in abundant Even up to today, they produce the best palm oil in the whole
In the south East, Akpugo palm oil is the best .they have the freshest palm oil and palm
wine to the Extend that people do go to Akpugo community to buy palm oil or palm wine to
sell to the people living outside the community..
Akpugo people is a unique people, they are popular there is no place you will go to that
you will not see Akpugo man or woman, but they have problem which is still disturbing them
up to date, the problem is that they don’t like serving people, they don’t believe in serving
people, they believe in themselves. They have pride in them and because of their pride they
cannot be under anybody or serve anybody.
Akpugo people does not have good infrastructure like good road and good water etc. but
they have many professors and personnel who are well known like our father founder .so this
is little I know about Akpugo community.
This project work shall therefore look into how Nigeria television authority (NTA) fix
men and women in programs, seminars, commercials and reports and also analysis on the
various roles men and women play in the society or media reporting and broadcasting gender
equality, we will discussed asatopical under this research. But before I will like to discuss
History of Nigeria authority Nigeria ‘NTA’ briefly.
Brief History of Nigeria Television Authority (NTA)
Nigerian Television Authority popularly known as NTA is the oldest broadcasting
station in Africa. Nigerian Television Authority is a government owned news broadcasting
station that is mainly incharge of airing latest news around Nigeria.
Nigerian Television Authority was inaugurated in 1977 according to Nigerian
Television Authority claim that they are the largest African stations.
Idowu Ifedoyin comfort says that the Nigerian television authority is one of the
outstanding television station in Nigeria, it is the oldest television station that has its name
changed to NTA formally by general Olusegun Obasanjo. This station posses all qualities to
be a broadcast station that is accurate, objectivity, fairness and truthfulness etc and also it is
the only television station that has it’s station in almost all the cities in the country.
Nigerian Television Authority have branches in the following cities in Nigeria but my
main focus is on Enugu’s station Nigerian Television Authority ( NTA).
The Nigerian Television Authority is the largest television network in Africa as well as
one of the oldest and most accomplished indigenous broadcast outfits in Nigeria. Nigerian
Television Authority has over the years distinguished itself as a force in the field of television
broadcasting globally. It is equally programmes has received numerous awards at
international competitions and festivals which include the following..
1. Ist prize the drama category at the URTNA competitions in Algiers, Senegal etc with
cock crow at dawn moment of truth.etc
2. Ist prize for drama in us prized pieces festival with things fall apart.
3. Ist prize in documenting category with a labour’s honour lost at the 1988.
TAM-TAM international video competition in Italy among other laurels.
The authority is equipped with a new state of the are digital facilities which has
additionally enhance it’s competition advantage as the major player in the broadcast industry
Here in conclusion what am trying to explain is that NTA is a very large station that
informs, educate and entertain people.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
The success of Nigerian Television Authority depends on how it places men and
women in it’s programmes, commercial news and it’s broadcast.
Inspite of the progress made over the last 25 years, NTA still churns out female
stereotype that limit the power of women in the society.
In many countries, women are strongly presented in news room but media is still very
much male dominated when the top positions are examined it is very difficult to find a man
working in a news room, it is mostly female that work in a news room.
Another problem identified in this course of research is that women being
marginalized in the news both in the context of the jobs they do and in the opportunity they
have to make their way in the unions that represent them .battles for equality are being taught
in every part of the country and this has really bring fight and problem in our country today
,men has really discriminate women from what they want ,by not allowing them to get exact
work they want, men believe that men are not equal with them but is not suppose to be so
because both male and female are equal because what a man can do a woman can do it better.
It takes argument, debate, training and practical commitment to confront discrimination.
What this research is trying to explain or let us know is that men and women are equal
no matter what.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following are the objective of this study:
1. To help people working in Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) to access to
programme on gender equality.
2. To identify challenges in Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) role in promoting
gender equality in Nigeria.
3. To know the pattern of their work and also to know how Nigerian Television
Authority (NTA) is promoting their gender equality in Akpugo community in Nkanu
West Local Government Area .
4. To know the area in which Nigerian Television Authority can help Akpugo
community in promoting gender equality.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The result of this research will help to adjust those problems that militate against the
Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) role of promoting gender equality and thus help to
improve the image of the course. The research will provide solution to those hindrances to the
Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) role in promoting gender equality. The research will as
well provide for Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) management they needed sound
background towards achieving it’s goal of eliminating gender equality in large.
The immediate people affected by the problem is Akpugo community in Nkanu West
Local Government Area and for this, they will benefit first as the research will be carried out
on them, the people will become enlightened and vice will be reduced in the area. And also
other undeveloped communities in Nigeria will also benefit because as they may have similar
problem with Akpugo community the same process will be used in solving the problem.
People living in Akpugo community is going to benefit because Nigerian Television
Authority (NTA) will help them to promote their gender equality.
Again, Nigerian Television Authority will benefit because there will be smooth and
easy flow of information round the country and to the most interior parts.
Above all, Nigeria as a whole will benefit because the economy will improve as most
people will go back to their communities and get themselves employed to yield revenue to
their country.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions are the questions of this study
1. Does Nigeria television authority (NTA) programme ‘women in focus ’help to
promote gender equality?
2. Does the location of Akpugo in Nkanu west local government area a hindrance to
Nigeria television authority to effectively inform people of gender equality.
3. Could the astute and vibrant nature of women from Akpugo be associated with the
Nigeria television authority (NTA) ‘women in focus’ programme on gender equality.
4. Can the participation of women in development programmes in Akpugo be
associated to Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) programme on foot print?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following statement will provide some guide for the study
H:1 Nigeria television authority (NTA) programme ‘women in focus’ can help to
promote gender equality?
H:0 Nigeria television authority (NTA ) programme ‘women in focus’ cannot help to
promote gender equality?
H:1 The location of Akpugo in Nkanu west local government area can be a hindrance to
Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Enugu to effectively inform the people of
gender equality.
H:0 The location of Akpugo in Nkanu West Local Government Area cannot be a
hindrance to Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Enugu to effectively inform the
people of gender equality.
H:1 The astute and vibrant of women from Akpugo can be associated with the Nigerian
Television Authority(NTA) programme on gender equality.
H:0 The astute and vibrant of women from Akpugo cannot be associated with the
Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) programme on gender equality.
H:1 The participation of women in development programme in Akpugo can be
associated to Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) programme on foot print.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is on the role of Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) in
promoting gender equality, the issue of gender equality will be explored using Akpugo
community as the focus area.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
This research could not cover report in all aspect area due to time constraint internet
network failure during the research and transportation cost.
The books consulted in the course of this research were not filled with current or up to
date report about this research topic. Finally insufficient information supplied in some of the
research material were also limitation in carrying out this basic information were not fully
1.8 Definition of Terms
As the topic of this research is ‘Role of Nigerian Television Authority in promoting
gender equality in Akpugo community in Nkanu west local government area Enugu State.
Definition of Terms are as follows
 Role: Function
 Gender: A person’s gender is the make that they are male of female.
 Gender Inequality :This is a male or a female
 Gender Equality: This is a male or female of the same status ,right and responsibility
for all the members of a society , group or family.
 Community: Group or people that live in a particular area or community.
 Nigeria Television Authority: It is a station that inform, Educate and entertain the
Operational Definition
 Role: It is a character or part played by a performer. It is a also a way in which
Nigeria television authority (NTA) is supposed to get involved in activities of our
community to get it involved.
 Gender: Gender has primarily to refer to the grammatical categories of masculine or
feminine and neuter, but now the word has become well established in its use to refer
to sex based categories . it is also a state of being male or female or sexual identity
especially in relation to society or culture.
 Gender Equality: It means being equal, visibility, empowerment and participation. It
s also a set of attitude, actions and assumption .it is also a range of physical biological
and behavioural.
 Gender Inequality: It is a way of differentiating male or female that is feminine or
masculine .it is a state of being male or female.
 Community: It is a place in which people are living ,this people share the same
Dialect, culture, tradition and also the same food .it is also a place in which group of
enlightened and uneducated people that live together in a village.
 Nigeria Television Authority: It is a station where programme and other things like
news are done through the use of Nigeria television authority information are easily


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