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Title page i
Approval page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Table of contents vi
Abstract vii
1.1Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 5
1.5 Scope of the Study 5
1.6 Research Questions 6
1.7 Research Hypothesis 6
2.1Related Literature 11
2.2 Concepts of study 19
2.3 Review of Related studies 19
2.4 Theoretical Review 19
2.5 Summary 20
3.1 Design of the Study 21
3.2 Area of Study 21
3.3 Population of Study 23
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 23
3.5 Instrument of Data Collection 23
3.6 Validity of Instrument 23
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument 23
3.8 Method of Data Collection 23
4.1 Distribution and Collection of Questionnaire 24
4.2 Test for Hypothesis 36
4.3Discussio of Findings 36
5.1 Summary of findings 43
5.2 Conclusions 44
5.3 Recommendations 44
5.4 Implication of research findings 45
5.5 Suggestion for further studies 45
This study “Role of Public Relations on Gender Conflict Resolution. (A Study of First
Bank Nigeria Plc, Emene, Branch), seeks to study the term gender conflict, in addition
to the importance and effective practice of Public Relations. It covers the important
roles which a Public Relations practitioner performs on the Bank and also the Qualities
of Public Relations practitioner. A critical review to related literature were made.
Relevant theories were used to gratify the study, that the social responsibility theory,
which was used to describe Public Relations as social responsibilities of maintaining a
good and mutual relationship between the banker and customers and environment in
which it operates. The sample size of 171 were used using Taro Yamane formular.
The researcher made use of survey research method. The questionnaire and oral
interview was used for data collection. Data was presented in tables and a descriptive
approach is adopted in analysis using chi square. Finally, the researcher made some
recommendation including, Public Relations practitioners complained that
management does not consult them on policy –making plan or even inform important
matters. This can be resolve if only the management realize the important roles of the
Public Relations. The management should likewise show concern toward the effective
practices of Public Relations practitioners. When this is done we can be sine of a
conducive working environment.
1.1 Background of the Study
Gender is a general term that refers to girls, boys, women and men. Gender can
also be defined to include the roles of makes and females in the society. A gender
perspective in conflict would look at the way in which the considerations of these
different groups of people will be dealt with during the transitional justices process.
Female’s experience of conflict and transitions however differ from the of males due
to gendered patterns that define different roles and experiences during both conflict
and post- conflict. Whenever there is interaction between two individuals, there are
chances of difference of opinion. Gender and conflict then, refers to the ways women
and men are affected in times of conflict.
Conflicting situation is a situation in which two or more values, perspectives
and opinions are contradictory in nature, have not yet aligned or agreed upon yet.
Conflict may be defined in many ways and can be considered as an expression
hostility, negative attitudes, antagonism, aggression, rivalry, and misunderstanding. It
is also associated with situation that involves contradictory or irreconcilable interests
between two opposing groups. A simple definition of conflict is that it is any tension
which is experienced when one person perceived that one’s needs or desires are or are
likely to be thwarted or frustrated (Gupta and Joshi, 2008). A conflict is more than
just a disagreement. It is a situation in which people perceive a threat (Physical,
emotional, power, status etc) to their well – being and is caused by t he differences
and clash of personalities – attitudes, beliefs and values and needs, Conflicts are
inherent in any interpersonal relationship, its management is integral to the
performance of any organization. Conflict management involves acquisition of skills
relating to conflict resolution, self –awareness about conflict modes, conflict
communication skills, and establishing a structure for management of conflict in your
environment. Banking industry is the backbone of any economy. Progress of any
country is directly or indirectly influenced by soundness of banking system of the
country. In globalized world, trade and commerce would almost be impossible with
the availability of suitable banking services.
The handling of conflict resolution in an organization or in the political realm
of a state is major function of Public Relations. It is an essential skill of Public
Relations manager to prevent gender conflict resolution rather than finding solutions
when crisis erupt. The use of fire brigade approach in finding solution to problems
that arises in banking sectors is described as “Remedial Public Relations” by Haywood
(1984) where as “preventive Publics Relations” is what many scholars advocate in
public relations practice. This is “the prevention of crisis in an organization through
effective communication network between the organization and its publics in order to
engender understanding, acceptance, goodwill, respect, efficiency, good welfare and
mutual support ad co-operation”. In order to handle conflict resolution in our
organizations, and be in a position to apply Public Relations as a strategic management
option for survival and growth, Nwosu (2004) says that Public Relations practitioners
should see themselves as managers as well as carryout their functions as skilled and
knowledgeable managers in a manner similar to what exit or is the dominant paradigm
commercial organizations. This is therefore, the key to the reduction eradication of the
unceasing crises in organizations arising from areas management – employee relations
management – trade –union relations, cultism organizational politics,, ethnic and
sectional chauvinism and personality clashes. In the same vein, researcher reported
that male managers preferred power and authority while female managers used
communication before resorting to using power (coercion). Also, female supervisors
were found to use coercion less than male than male supervisor and often after other
resolution styles do not yield desired results (Mulac, Siebold, & Farris, 2000; Lamude
& Torres, (2000).
This implies that female supervisors in first Bank tend to ultimately use
coercion if necessary. The research reported that subordinates see coercive – based
technique as negative while the rewarding, referent and expert – based techniques
were seen as positive by the subordinates. Reflecting on conflict management
Faniran (2002) and Adekunle (2004) reported that experienced managers were
found to be more effective in managing conflict situations than less experienced
managers. The authors further reported that working experience rather than gender of
the manager has been found to have significantly influenced conflict management
effectiveness. Also, the bankers argue that experience male and female managers were
found to be equally effective in managing conflict though their attitude may be quite
different. First bank solve gender issue by giving all their customers male and female
change to exercise their fundamental human right according to bank ethnic. In the
current dispensation of Nigeria political realm, gender is a big threat in the society,
where the First Lady of Nigeria is fighting tooth and nail for federal government to
recognize female in the working sectors. Ladies should be give 50% chance of
opportunity. This chapter therefore, focuses on the importance and the acquisition of
necessary skills and knowledge in conflict resolution management among
organizational heads, and other general crises management skills, including how to
handle the media and bad press “during crises in First Bank Plc. Emene, Enugu.
1.2 Statement of Problem
From the above background, its obvious that gender conflict is a negative
element that is highly unwelcomed in the banking sector. Conflict decreases growth
and brings about instability in the banking industries. It brings about unhealthy
competition among other Mega Banking Sectors. This development is critical as
foreign and domestic investors will be sceptical that their huge investment would be
safe, fear and insecure as well as lack of trust and confidence will prevail. Thus, for
the continuity of development for First Bank to be guaranteed, the need for Public
Relations roles in managing conflict in the First Bank can not be over emphasized.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
i. To find out whether Public Relations play a vital role in conflict
resolution between First Bank and other mega banks.
ii. To find out whether racism of gender inequality of income or sex and
lack of labour affect the working force of First Bank Plc.
iii. To find out whether unhealthy competition affect the global market of
banking industries in First Banks Plc. Emene branch.
iv. To find out whether gender conflict decrease the growth and brings
about instability in the banking industries.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher formulated the following question:
i. Does Public Relations play a vial role in conflict resolution between First
Bank and other Mega Banks?
ii. To what extent does racism of gender inequality of income or sex affect the
working force of Fist Bank Plc?
iii. Does unhealthy competition affect the global market of banking industries in
First Bank Plc. Emene Branch?
iv. Does gender conflict affects the growth and brings about instability in the
banking industries?
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
The researcher made use of null hypothesis
Hoi; Public Relations does not play a vital role in conflict resolution between First
Bank and other mega Banks.
H0: Public Relations play a vital role in conflict resolution between First Bank and
other mega Banks
Hii: Racism of gender inequality of income or sex does not affect the working force
of First Bank Plc.
H0: Racism of gender inequality of income or sex affects the working force of First
Bank Plc.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will benefit many government officials and co-operate organizations
in conflict resolution and management as few work have been done on the subject.
Also it will serve as a starting point for other researchers who will be interested in the
subject of this research. It will also be beneficial to Emene communities and Public
Relations experts as more knowledge has been gained from the research. The research
of this kind becomes necessary as its finding provides the Public Relations
practitioners with comprehensive and broad knowledge of what could be the effect of
corporate social responsibility for enhancing community relations. In essence, the
study will serve as a useful guide for future researcher to either validate or reject the
finding of the study.
1.7 Definitions of Terms (Operational Definition)
The terms are operationally defined as follows: The meaning of key words that
constitute the research problem and some key words that my be used frequently in
course of this research work will be defined as sub-headings to ensure proper and easy
understanding of the study.
The following salient concepts have been conceptually defined for the study.
Crisis Management: Black (1999) defined crisis management as the process by
which organization deals with any major unpredictable events that threatens to harm
the organization, it is responding to unforeseen circumstance with no time to plan
Management:Weihrich (1994) opted management as the process of designing and
maintaining an environment in which individual working together in groups
efficiently accomplish selected aims through planning, organizing, staffing, leading
and controlling.
Public Relations: (1987) also defined Public Relations as the forms of planned
communication outward or inward between an organization and it public for the
purpose of achieving specific object concerning mutual understanding.
Resolution: A firm decision to do or not to do something, the quality of being
determined or resolute. It also a process of settlement of dispute among smaller and
mega banks to gender conflict.
Conflict Resolution: Conflict resolution conceptualization as the methods and
processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict.
Gender Conflict: Gender conflict is based on the cultural beliefs various societies
have established concerning the roles men and women play in those societies


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