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Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Content – – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vi
List of tables – – – – – – – – –
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems – – – – – – – 3
1.3 Significance of the study – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Scope of the study – – – – – – – – 4
1.5 Limitations of study – – – – – – – – 5
1.6 Research questions – – – – – – – – 5
1.7 Hypothesis – – – – – – – – – 6
1.8 Objectives of the study – – – – – – – – 7
1.9 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – – 8
1.10 Theoretical framework – – – – – – – 9
2.1 Theoretical Review – – – – – – – – 12
2.2 Empirical review – – – – – – – – 24
3.1 Design of the study – – – – – – – – 49
3.2 Area of the study – – – – – – – – 50
3.3 Population of the study – – – – – – – 50
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique – – – – – – 51
3.5 Instrument for data collection – – – – – – 51
3.6 Validity of the Instrument – – – – – – – 52
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument – – – – – – 53
3.8 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – – 53
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – 53
4.1 Discussion of Results – – – – – – – 55
5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – – 71
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 72
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 73
5.4 Implications – – – – – – – – – 75
5.5 Limitations of study – – – – – – – – 75
5.6 Suggestion for further study – – – – – – 76
Bibliography – – – – – – – – – 77
Appendix – – – – – – – – – 78
This work is concerned with salaries and wages administration in Nigeria public
sector, a case study of Olamaboro Local Government Area of Kogi State. It is on this
premise that the study is set to evaluate and highlight the significances of salaries and
wages as factors towards achieving the aims and objectives of an organization. The
employers of labour are aware of the fact that salary is also one way of motivating
workers in an organization. The research design used in this study is descriptive
research method. The sample used is 150 and the sampling technique simple random
technique. The sources of data collection used in this research are personal interview,
personal observation and the use of questionnaire. Method of data analysis used is
Chi-square formular. Based on the analysis of data for the study, the following
findings were pertinent. (1) That salary and wages administration is an essential part
of any productive organization. (2) The researcher also found out that salary and
wages improves the performances of the employee’s in an organization. The major
conclusion of this study is that importance of salary and wages administration in an
organization cannot be overemphasized. In view of the above, the following
recommendation are. That the salary administration policy to be implemented across
board so that all the level officers especially the junior cadre can have a sense of
belonging. The promotion policy in the public services especially in Olamaboro local
government be improved.

Table 4.1.1 Age Distribution of Respondents – – – – – 56
Table 4.1.2 Sex Distribution of Respondents – – – – – 56
Table 4.1.3 Marital Status of Respondents – – – – – 57
Table 4.1.4 Religious Distribution of Respondents – – – – 58
Table 4.1.5 Income Distribution of Respondents- – – – – 58
Table 4.1.6 Education Level Distribution of Respondents – – – 59
Table 4.1.7 Length of Service Distribution of Respondents – – – 64
Table 4.1.8 Respondents view on Salary and Motivation – – – 64
Table 4.1.9 Respondents view on the way the council
handles salaries and wages matter- – – – – – – 65
Table 4.1.10 respondents view on salary Increment – – – – 66
Table 4.1.11 Respondents’ views on whether salary increment boosts their morale 66
Table 4.1.12 Respondents’’ views on salary payment method – – – 67
Table 4.1.13 Respondents view on whether the method of salary
administration by management enhance productivity – – – – 68
Table 4.1.14 Respondents view on Promotion Policy – – – – 68
Table 4.1.15 Respondents views on the way to manage salary and – – 69
wage in the Council
Organization is the most significant and integral point of administration. Without
proper organization, administration is not possible. Thus organization is important to
every administrative action. For no administrative action can be implemented without
an organization. Therefore, no organization can exist without people or human
resources to pilot its affairs. People or human resources have been identified as the
core element in an organization.
The concept of organization has been variously defined, for instance, Waldo (1978)
defined it as “the structure of authoritative and habitual personal interrelations in an
administrative system”. Organisation has also been defined as “social units
deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek specific goals” (Quoted in Makae
and Pitt. 1980).
Gulick (1937) defines organization as a formal structure of authority through which
work sub-divided are arranged, defined and coordinated for the designated objective
or goal. As it were, individuals who created an organization in order to achieve some
specific aims and objectives in turn, the organization attract individuals who wish to
become members for the purpose of their own need for money, interest status and
Organization is said to be a holistic of both human, capital and material resources with
the aim of putting their resources together to meet goals and objectives. Ideally an
organization should seek to accomplish all its set objectives. However, salary is one
of the first and basic fundamental human needs. This is because the immediate
problems confronting a school graduate or a new applicant is how to secure a good job
so that he can earn a living. Therefore, salary administration, means a method and
process that any organization uses for compensating their workers for service
rendered. Salary is also a process of determining monetary reward for service
rendered by the employees to an organization. In a nutshell, salaries and wages
administration is the establishment and implementation of sound policies and method
of employee’s compensation.
On productivity, the need for productivity improvement exists virtually in all countries
of the world whether developed or developing countries like Nigeria etc. The primary
reason for this, is precisely because of increased productivity and performance and
economic growth. Consequently, industrial development effort will come to naught
unless a nation’s productivity also improves in the developing countries. It is
generally accepted that salaries and wages have to bear some relationship to
productivity. The theory is that wages cannot diverge significantly from productivity
without causing either inflation or unemployment. The implication is that a dynamic
economy with full employment and no inflation might be an achievement in the
performance of the organization.
The usually enhanced remuneration paid to the civil servants, have been rendered
inadequate by the high rates of inflation pervading the economy over the years. The
civil and public services have witnessed a lot of neglect which has led to a drop in
salary and wages and efficiency of both civil and public servants. In response to this,
study in the public and civil services, the employers of labour (government and private
enterprises) introduce the method and process of compensating their employees
through what is called salaries and wages administration. Though, employers will
impact positively on the employees morale and subsequently induce their
performance. This work is set to solve the problems of salaries and wages and
performances in an organization. This will go a long way in improving their
performance and hence lead to higher productivity. Promotion policy should be
awarded as at when due. From the analysis above, it shows that if workers’ salaries
and wages are equitable it will enhance the performance of the employees. The
problems of salaries and wages not paid as at when due, salaries and wages increment
etc need to be solved through good salaries and wages policy. There should be no
delay on annual leave, maternity leave, transport allowance, housing allowances, and
medical allowances.
Salaries and wages administration is one of the newest personnel challenges in
modern organization. This study hopes to provide a comprehensive document that
would discuss salaries and wages administration in Nigeria and its impact on
performance in an organization. The research work is of a great importance to the
employers and employees in the following ways:
(1) To attract and retain sufficient and suitable employees that will help the
organization to achieve its objectives.
(2) To reward employees of their efforts and commitment to the
(3) To motivate workers to a high performance.
(4) It also reveals the extent to which salary and wages administration policy
can go a long way in improving workers’ performance in the
organization and hence lead to increased productivity.
The employees and the employers are the beneficiaries of this study because when
employees are well paid, they tend to work well by so doing, the organization is
increasing their productivity because the employees are committed to their work.
The scope of the study is limited to Olamaboro Local Government Area of Kogi State.
In understanding a research work, its scope is normally defined with respect to a
geographical and time dimension. The fixing of such boundaries is usually resorted to
due to the problems posed by the administration of a large data. This study therefore,
conforms to enhance the salaries and wages of the worker within the organization to
increase their performance.
The obvious limitations of time, finance and materials such as textbooks and other
resources on the researcher makes it absolutely impossible to embark on such
comprehensive study that will cover the comparative study of the whole local
government in the state. Hence, the limitation has necessitated the choice of a case
study which is Olamaboro local government area.
Hence, the choice local government as a case study is not arbitrarily embarked upon
by the researcher. It was expected that the study would serve as a representation of a
state from whose inductive research finding would be of general application. The
researcher hopes that other scholars interested in salaries and wages administration
will undertake a more comprehensive study to cover the entire state in the future.
Therefore, wages are regularly, hourly or weekly payment made or received by
workers for services rendered by an employer. Hence, both salaries and wages are
payment for labour service.

The following research questions are posed to aid the researcher in the study.
(1) To what extent has salary and wages affected the performance of workers in
an organization.
(2) Why salary and wages administration in an organization?
(3) To what extent has lack of salary and wages administration affected workers’
performance particularly in Olamaboro local government?
(4) Do management offer adequate salaries and wages to workers in Olamaboro
local government?
(5) Are salaries and wages a motivator for performance or dissatisfier?
(6) How has salary and wages affected the improvement of the workers’
For the purpose of this study, the following hypotheses are postulated:
(a) That the salaries and wages of the organization has no significant relationship
with the workers’ performance (Ho)
That salaries and wages administration has a significant relationship with the
workers’ performance in the organization (Hi)
(b) Salaries and wages is not a criteria for employees’ commitment to work (Ho)
Salaries and wages is a criteria for employees’ commitment to work (Hi)
(c) There are no inadequacies in the provision of salaries and wages of workers as
at when due (Ho)
There are inadequacies in the provision of salaries and wages of workers as at
when due (Hi).
(d) Salary and wages administration is not important in an organization (Ho)
Salary and wages administration is important in an organization (Hi)
(e) Improvement of workers is not based on salaries and wages (Ho)
Improvement of workers is based on salaries and wages (Hi)
(f) There is no need for salary and wages administration in an organization (Ho)
There is need for salary and wages administration in an organization (Hi)
It is one thing to be blessed with abundant human resources and another to manage
these resources to achieve stated objectives. No organization can hope to move or
improve positively without the effort of her workers and as such sound salaries or
wages is a sine qua non for improved performance of workers. They contributed in no
small way towards improved performance in the organization.
Therefore, this study among other things is aimed at achieving the following
(1) To determine the relationship between salaries and wages and workers
productivity in Olamaboro local government area.
(2) To measure if a day work: earning is directly proportional to the time worked
but rates are graded. This is mostly applied to daily paid employees.
(3) To ascertain whether salaries and wages administration boosts the
performances of the workers.
(4) To identify how workers productivity, negative attitude to work during
working hours and low payment of remuneration affect performance in
Olamaboro local government and to proffer suitable suggestions and
(5) Fringe benefit: this is an extra amount paid to employees to better their working
conditions, it is inform of rent supplements, transport allowances, etc. It gives
employee a desirable working conditions and it satisfies their needs.

(1) SALARY: a major responsibility of an organization is to make sure that its
workers’ salaries are paid as at when due. The organization has to be certain
that salaries paid can satisfy the basic physiological and safety needs of their
employees, which when satisfied, one can expect them to put their best effort
in order to achieve the organizational objectives. Therefore, salary refers to a
fixed regular payment usually made every month or annually to the employees
of an organization concerned. Salary could be an agreed amount of money
between the employer and the employee to be paid at the end of every month
in respect of the services to be rendered. Salaries are compensation paid based
on an annual rate of pay, though it is usually paid monthly irrespective of the
number of hours worked.
(2) WAGES: It is the reward that individual receives from an organization in
exchange of his labour. People who work in an organization are engaged in an
exchange relationship. The employees exchange the labour for financial
rewards. To the employer, the most important oblication he owes his
employees is their wages. Wages are compensation paid on hourly, daily or
weekly basis. It is usually paid to labourer, part time workers etc. workers are
paid based on the number of hours worked and not actually on the amount of
work done. Therefore, wages are regularly or usually hourly, daily etc
payment made or received for work or services rendered by an employee.
However, both salaries and wages are payment for labour or services rendered.
(3) ADMINISTRATION: There is no universality in defining administration.
Administration is inevitable because where policies or decision are made, they
must be applied. According to Augustus Adebayo, administration is the
organization and direction of resources both human and material for the
accomplishment of specific goal. Individual now tend to define administration
from their personal.
(4) FRINGE BENEFIT: This is an extra amount paid to employees to better
their working conditions, it is inform of rent supplements, transport
allowances, etc. It gives employee a desirable working conditions and it
satisfies their needs.

Theoretical framework is defined as a theoretical mirror or pillar upon which research
works are seen or built. The importance of it cannot be over emphasized. According
to Obasi (1999:9) it is a device or scheme for adopting or applying the assumption, a
theoretical framework is a way of describing, analyzing and interpreting and
predicting phenomena. It involves linking problems under investigation to
assumptions, postulation and principles of a theory. It has the potentiality to provide
the significance or rationale of a study. Therefore it provides the overall background
of the research. The theoretical framework of this study is based on Abraham Maslow
hierarchy of needs theory (1965).
Psychological Needs: These include body’s automatic efforts to certain normal
functioning such as satisfaction or hunger and thirst. The need for air and shelter also
the need for sleep, sensory pleasures activity and arguable sexual desire. People
concentrate on satisfying these needs before turning to higher order needs.
Safety Needs: These include safety and security freedom from pain or threat of
physical attack, protection from danger or deprivation, the need for orderliness.
Love Needs: These include affection, sense of belonging, social activities, and both
the giving and receiving of love.
Safety Need
Psychological Needs
Love/Social Needs
Esteem Needs: These include both self respect and the esteem of other self respect
involving the desire for confidence, strength, independence and freedom and
achieving of esteem of other involves reputation or prestige, status, recognition and
Self Actualization: This is the development and realization of one’s potential.


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