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Title page                                                                                           i

Approval page                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                               iii

Dedication                                                                                        iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                              vii

List of tables                                                                                      viii

Abstract                                                                                             ix


Background of the Study                                                                             1

Statement of the Problem                                                                           9

Purpose of the Study                                                                         11

Significance of the Study                                                                            11

Research Question                                                                                       12

Scope of the Study                                                                                      13


Theoretical framework                                                                      14

Conceptual framework                                                                     18

Empirical Studies                                                                                        30

Summary of Review of Related Literature                                        30



Research Design                                                                               32

Area of the Study                                                                                        32

Population for the Study                                                                            33

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                   33

Validation of the Instrument                                                             34

Method of Data Collection                                                                34

Method of Data Analysis                                                                  34


Research Question 1                                                                          36

Research Question 2                                                                          37

Research Question 3                                                                          38

Findings of the study                                                                        40

Discussion of Findings                                                                      43


Discussion of Findings                                                                      45

Summary of Procedure Used                                                            45

Implication of the Study                                                                             46

Conclusion                                                                                        47

Recommendations                                                                                      47

Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                 48

REFERENCES                                                                                49

APPENDICES                                                                                 54

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C


S/N                                            Title Page


1 Mean respondents on the teaching strategies employed by the technical teachers for teaching metalwork in secondary schools.  


2 Mean respondents on the human and material resources necessary for teaching metalwork in secondary schools.  


3 Mean respondents on the strategies that can improve students skills and academic performance in the study of metalwork technology.  





This study was conducted to identify the strategies to improve Delta State Technical colleges students skills and academic performance in metalwork Technology. Survey design was employed in the study. Three research questions were posed to guild the study. The population was made up 28 teachers and 124 students. The instrument used for data was a questionnaire which was validated. The arithmetic mean was used to answer the research questions. The findings revealed that there is poor performance of students and actualization of skills in metalwork technology. The study identifies the purpose of skill acquisition and came up with strategies/recommendations on how to enhance the skills and academic performance of students in technical colleges in Delta State of Nigeria.








Background of the Study

In Nigeria, vocational education starts in the junior secondary school (Pre-vocational) in the form of vocational orientation and continues to tertiary level of education. The objectives of vocational education in senior secondary school (FGN, 2004) are to:

  1. Provide trained manpower in the applied sciences technology and commerce at sub-professional grades.
  2. Provide technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development.

To achieve the stated objective at the senior secondary school, there shall be comprehensive with a core curriculum designed to broaden pupils knowledge and outlook (FGN, 2004). Students are made to select a vocational subject of which metalwork one of those to be selected.

Metalwork trade in Vocational education is the art of studying different metals; develop skills in using the metals to form different objects. The technological concept of metal work requires specific competency for occupational success.

According to Nigeria Board for Technical Education (NBTE),(1992), states that for a programme to achieve its stated objective resources for teaching various courses must be employed.

Human resources exist within people and consist of a persons potential abilities as well as current attributes, these resources include energy, knowledge, education, talent, attributes, skills and any other characteristics which require cognitive, affective or psychomotor abilities. Human resources in metal work in secondary schools can thus be school administrators (principals) technical teachers, workshop attendant, artisans and other members of staff who are either directly or indirectly involved in improving and molding creative ability, aptitude, value and commitment of students in metal work curricular.

Material resources according to Ozuzu (2004) are the facilities and materials procured for effective training of students in practical skills and applied scientific knowledge in the technical college. They include tool, equipment machines, instructional and training materials consumables, finances, textbook, responsive curriculum and management .Vocational aim at imparting to its recipient practical skills, basic scientific knowledge attitude and competence that enable them to work very effectively in industrial self-reliance ventures. This is organized in schools through a systematic and well organized training which requires that acquisition of  skills that is provided with the facilities. Maaji (2003) observed that school training facilities in these vocational colleges must be comparable to those in industries. The development of useful skill according to Anyakoha (1994) can be reinforced by the appropriate section and use of learning facilities and sources.

Every vocational training institution especially secondary schools face problems of providing and maintaining suitable workshop and appropriate teaching material. Ezeji (2003) explained that vocational education requires a workshop setting with adequate teaching facilities as a virtue learning situation in which the learner may experiments, tests, constructs, assembles and disassembles, refer design, fabricates and study. The emphasis is that adequate workshop experiences are essential for effective vocational education, this implies that metal work teachers should have experiences and skill comparable to those applicable to work in industries. The school principal, as an administrator, should ensure that adequate resources are made available and properly utilized to achieve the objective of actual work instruction in the secondary schools.

To ensure adequate vocational education of learners by imparting the required skills to them adequate teaching resources must be provided. This adequate knowledge and skills is necessary to ensure that learners are empowered to carry out their planned programme of activities successfully for the adequate selection and use of teaching resources. Adeogun (2001) discovered a very strong positive significant relationship between instructional resources and academic performance. According to Adeogun, schools endowed with more materials performed better than schools that are less endowed.

Nwachukwu (1998) affirms that these teaching resources should also attract and hold attention, assist in transfer of essential information and procedure that make learning real and permanent.

The provisions of appropriate human and material resources have badly affected vocational education (in which metal work is a sub-set) in Delta state technical colleges (secondary schools). (Akpan, 2001) observed that some students shrink at the mere mention of metal work because of the wrong notion that vocational subjects are for dropout.

The skill acquisition and self-reliance that have been the main objective of technology education are not achieved. In Delta State secondary schools, yearly students in Junior secondary schools pass out with good grades in introductory technology and new basic technology) but few are found in metal work class in senior secondary schools. In 1984 Nigeria began to experience oil glut with its attendant decline in the countries oil revenue which resulted in inflation and bad economy, this situation  affected some schools and caused them to be closed down which led to the idling of the programs of the nation policy on education. Government started paying lip services and the quality of training programmes changed from original aim of practical skill acquisition in metal work to theoretical skill acquisition.

Machines and equipment’s procured by the Federal Republic of Nigeria for metalwork and other vocational subjects are installed, maintained and utilized in some schools while in Some other schools that have not benefitted from the distribution of the machines still present  their few metal work students for NECO and WAEC yearly. The search for the realization of the stated objectives of vocational education in metalwork in secondary schools in Delta State, it is imperative to evaluate and account for teaching resources. It is not only deciding whether facilities and equipment are adequate but how these available resources could be used to achieve the best results.

For a student to learn efficiently, the students’ needs to understand that learning occurs in three domains, cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. (Okpara, 1994). Okpara opines that the cognitive domain is concerned with the recall or recognition of information and knowledge and the development of intellectual or mental skills and abilities. The psychomotor domain is concerned with the development of manual or manipulative skills. Affective domain on the other hand is concerned with the learners social development and the interest, attitudes, emotions, appreciations and values,(Scot, 2002, Okoro, 2002). The learning of every subject involves an element of the domains for example in Metalwork technology one requires sufficient theoretical knowledge, (cognitive) interest appreciation and good attitude towards the practical work confection and practical skills in fabrication, fingering, weltering and so on. (Psychomotor).

Education is usually directed towards the cognitive domain but one should also note that without proper interest, attitude towards a subject, the learner will find it very difficult to learn what the teacher is trying teach.

Educated Psychologist Ausbel, Novak and Henessian (2004) and America Psychological Association (APA), (2002) have pointed out that learning occurs in three domains which is greatly influenced by several factors these referred to as cognitive, Psycho motor and affective factors that influence learning respectively.

Affective factors influence learning those are those factors that affect peoples interest and attitude towards learning a particular subject or trade (Okafor, 2002). For a student to improve in skills in metalwork technology, the students interest, attitude must be considered, the students interest must be supported by proven ability, aptitude attribute etc.

Environment is a very important educational factors to be considered in achieving the goal of any educational programme. The school environment refers to factors within the school that influence the teaching-learning process. The school environment includes classrooms, library, technical workshops, teachers quality, teaching methods, peers, among other variables that can affect the teaching –learning process (Ajayi 2001). The extent to which pupils learn could be enhanced depending on what the school environment provides the learners and teachers. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching-learning process and academic performance of pupils. Relating this to the assertion of Williams, Persaud and turner (2008) quoting, Arseden (2005) which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment, school facilities were significantly related to students academic achievements.

It is an important principle in vocational education that vocational education will be efficient in proportion as the environment in which he must subsequently work. Thus an effective vocational education can only be given where the training jobs are carried out in the same way with the same apparatus, the same books and the same machine as applicable in the occupation itself.

The formats in which the curriculum content is presented to the teachers and learners could influence students interact in studying and understanding of the subject. Olaitan (2003) identified six approaches in which curriculum content is brought clearly and logically to the teachers and learners in the school. These are integrated approach, Job analysis approach, functional analysis approach, task analysis approach, competency based approach and modular approach; of these approaches only two are used for technical subjects. These are the integrated approach which is used in designing the curriculum of introductory technology in secondary schools and the modular approach which is used in designing the curriculum of technical subjects in technical colleges.

The importance of school administration in the academic achievement has long been acknowledged. It is believed that students develop interest and learn better in an environment that is relaxed and none threatening, parents also can considered the atmosphere of school environment before sending their children to any school. Student motivation is a major problem in most classrooms. Hoot stein (2002) noted that many children are bored, inattentive and unable to see much connection between school work and their lives outside the classrooms. He added that student’s boredom diminishes their attention, lowers their achievement and is a likely reason for dropping out of school. Teachers therefore need to use affective instructional strategies or teaching to reduce students boredom and enhance students interest which will result to good academic performances. Ezeji (2001) noted that teachers have important role to play in boosting moral and development of children interest and learning in general. Without doubt it is accepted that trained graduate teachers are more efficient in teaching field than their untrained counterpart.

Strategies offer a frame work within which an organization or individual defines possible means of achieving its goal and objectives. Swanso (1995) describe strategy as a well planned service of action for achieving an aim especially success against an opponent. There is a need to lay strategies to improve students skills in metalwork, the trainees on completion of the programme for metalwork like any other vocational course in the technical colleges according to national policy of education (FRN 2004) shall have three options.

Secure employment either at the end of the whole course or after completing one or more modules of employable skills, set up their own business and become self-employed and be able to empty other, and pursue further education in advance craft/technical institutions such as polytechnics, colleges of education technical and universities.

Statement of the Problem

There is a general concern over the low performance of technical college students, most especially those of metalwork technology who cannot cope with the world of work. The goal of metalwork technology in technical colleges in Nigeria according to NBTE (2009), is to provide skilled craftsmen with good knowledge of the working principles of metalwork and techniques and safety practices involved in metalwork maintenance.

The performance of students in this examination and especially in metalwork is not encouraging, the poor performance is probably due to lack of facilities (NABTEB 2004 Chief examiner report) or lack of knowledge of the teacher or the method adopted in teaching learning process. This decline in students performance has been associated to a number of factors among which is lack of adequate and utilization of teaching learning facilities (Akinyele 2000). This is in line with the National Technical and business education board (NABTEB),(2008) chief examiners report who observed that the poor performance of students in national technical certificate (NTC) examinations in recent years is partly due to the non usage of appropriate facilities in the teaching –learning process employed by the teachers.

All these are evidenced in the product of secondary school metalwork graduates as many do not posses employable skills to be self employed in metalwork industries.

Granting the nation quest for developed market economy, technical and vocational educational education in the technical colleges expected to give training and impart the necessary skills to individuals who shall be self reliant economically (FRN, 2004) and offer both a through and specialized preparation for initial employment including self-employment (UNESCO and ILO, 2002) it is all through conducive environment that proper learning can take place and good knowledge can be acquired.

Training must be interesting to make it meaningful this will bring about relevance and functionality to meet the needs of individual and society. This will prevent poor skills of students in metalwork technology in the state. Good strategies must be adopted in metalwork to boost student skills and academic performance in metalwork technology. Therefore it is necessary to identify strategies for improving the skills of metal work technology students in technical colleges in Delta state and Nigeria at large.



Purpose of the study

The study is aimed at identifying strategies for improving the skills and academic performance of metalwork technology students in technical colleges in delta state specifically the study in designed to:

  1. Finding out the teaching strategies employed by the technical teachers in teaching metalwork in secondary schools in delta state.
  2. Identify the various material resources necessary for teaching metal work in secondary schools in delta state?
  3. Identify strategies for improving the teaching and learning of skills and academic performance in metalwork among the students

Significance of the study

The results of this study would be of great benefit to:

  • the metal work teacher’s,
  • school administrators,
  • curriculum planners,
  • students and the society.

Technical teachers in the technical colleges will benefits from the finding of this study while imparting knowledge on students, it will also provide the basis on which the teachers will plan their lesson and teach the students the right type of skill needed for productive work in the world of work. The study will help the school administrator (principle) to have precise information about resources available and needed for teaching of metalwork and the teaching material needed to be equal for the course contain for proper transfer of knowledge.

This study will help the curriculum planner to keep abreast the relevant teaching resource for each course content in metalwork in the course of their planning. The result of this study will equally assist the government to know the importance of teaching resources, identify the needs of metalwork subjects and quickly make adequate provision for effective implementation of metalwork programme in secondary schools.

The students will also benefit when human and material resources are available and put into effective and efficient use. They will acquire the needed practical skills (vocations) basic and scientific knowledge and attitude that will make them become self-relent and self employed graduates. The society will in turn benefit when the unemployment among school leaves will be reduced. This will promote industrial and economic development of the country.

Research Questions

For carrying out the study, these research questions have been formulated:

  1. What are the teaching strategies employed by the technical teachers for teaching metalwork in the secondary schools in delta state.
  2. What are the material resources necessary for teaching metal work in the secondary schools in delta state?
  3. What are the perceived strategies that can improve students skills in the study of metal work technology?

Scope of the study

The study is delineated to strategies for improving students skills and academic performance in metalwork department of technical colleges in delta state, that will enable them to function effectively. The study will cover the practical teaching strategies, teaching resources that motivate skills acquisition of students in metalwork technology and technical competency in teaching metalwork.



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