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  • Background to the Study

Class size has been significant issues for many years with concerns long expressed about the quality of teaching possible when a single teacher is responsible for a large number of students. For many years, educators, politicians and general public have debated on the number of students a teacher in government schools, a teacher can work effectively to ensure that students adequately learned.

The relationship between class size and teaching effectiveness has been a perplexing one for educators. Students has found that the physical environment, class overcrowding and teaching methods are all variables that affect students achievement. Gentry (2000) opined that other factors that affect students are school population and class size.

The issues of class size and teaching effectiveness among secondary schools teachers in public sector has caused a lot of problems that had lead to decline in the standard of education since the academic of students depend largely on the social environment. It is imperative to examine the impact variable of class size, school population and teacher disposition in public schools. Over-crowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. This is because large class do not allow individual students to get the needed attention from the teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance.

According to Halcousis and Sony (2003), the idea that school population and class size might affect students performance is consistent with the growing literature on the relationship been public sector institutional arrangement and outcome. The premise that reducing class size can lead to improved teaching and learning is one that most teachers would readily endorse. Advocates of small classes believes that small class size allow teacher to give more individualized attention to students, manage their classrooms more effectively and provide more effective instruction that leads to better student performance.

In a smaller classroom, a teacher has more time to get to know each student personality and academic strengths and weakness, students received more attention.

Johnson (2002) argue that there is no substantive proof that class size make a difference in students performance and that there may be over influences affecting students performance.

Evidence linking smaller classes to improve performance is in conclusive for instance difference studies have varied in their definition of small class size.

According to Erik Haunshek (2003) only 15 percent of study found that reducing class size has a statistically significant positive effect on student performance. The remaining 72 percent indicate that reducing class size has no significant effect.

Hunt and Hilton (2005) have also stated that a large class size does not allow for enough attention to be paid to individual students by the teacher. The teacher in the view of Eklin (2005) then lends to move along with the intelligent learners. He does not consider the creative or slow learners, especially in public secondary school. The crucial fact is that he (teacher) does not have enough time to give individual attention at each students thereby hampering their academic performance. This is because the students is not given opportunity to explore his surrounding, ask question and get the teacher guidance.

The problem of this study is to find out whether class size and teaching effectiveness among secondary school teachers affects the students’ academic performance in Eket Local Government Area.

  • Statement of the Problem

In view of the geometrical increase in students enrolment in public secondary school with corresponding arithmetic increase in the staff strength, therefore it become imperative to examine how teacher can manage and teach a class with many students, other variables that post a problem include

  1. Do teacher in large and small classes differ in time spent on teaching? Can the teacher cope with the proximity, that is going with the students individually, or do teachers in large and small classes differ in more qualitative dimension of teaching?

It is on this note that this study, therefore is specifically attempt to assess class size and teaching effectiveness in public secondary school in Eket.

  • Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to examine critically how class size and teaching effectiveness affect the academic performance of students in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. In specific terms, the study is been undertake with view of finding out:

  1. Determine the concept of class size of secondary school students in Eket Local Government Area
  2. Determine the effect of class size in teaching and learning of secondary school in Eket Local Government Area
  • Ascertain the effectiveness of teaching and learning
  1. Identify the policy guiding teacher student ratio in secondary school in Eket Local Government Area
  2. To analyzed the effect of over-population and the individualization of instructions in secondary school.
  3. To determine the relationship between teacher quality and the use of instructional materials on academic achievement of students.
    • Significance of the Study

The study, class size and teaching effectiveness among Government teacher in secondary school shall be significance in the following ways:

The research will help students realized that poor academic performance might not necessarily be their fault alone but other variables such classroom size and environment.

This work will help the government in planning for the general aesthetic quality of the school, in terms of classroom location, office, accommodation of location of sport ground, libraries and workshop within the school system.

The study will also be of help to educational administrators in mapping out difference kind of educational programmes, taking into account the number of students administered in the school.

The findings of this study will help to tackle the negative effects associated with student achievement. The study will help both government and private individuals on having a comfortable site to raise structures for learning.

  • Research Questions

The following research questions shall guide the study

  1. How does class-size affect the effective teaching among Government teachers in Secondary school?
  2. To what extent does teacher quality/teaching effectiveness affect the individualization of instruction in secondary school
  • In what way does over population affect the use of instructional materials on academic performance of students.
    • Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, several challenges were encountered which include:

  1. Lack of funds for the procurement of necessary materials.
  2. The scope of the study focuses on one major variable and also a specific geographical territory
  • The period of time stipulated for the completion of the research was insufficient for a wider and more in depth research.

Above the mentioned limitation, any other omissions and commissions that might have been discovered in this research work is exclusively that of the researcher.

  • Delimitation of the Study

The study is delimited to six (6) selected secondary schools in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. This is because the researcher find those schools necessary and accessible and was also delimited to senior secondary (1-3) students.

  • Definitions of Terms

Secondary School: This is a school which provide student with part or all of their secondary education

Student: A person who is studying at the secondary school or college

Academic Performance: This is commonly measure by the scores of the students in examination

Teacher: These are professionally trained individuals who impart knowledge to the less experience in school setting.

Class size: this is the number of learners taught by a teacher at any given time

Learning: This is a relatively permanent change of behavior due to experience


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