TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page i
Title page ii
Approval page iii
Table of contents vi
Background of the study 2 statement of the problem 5
Objective of the study 9 Research Question 9 Research Hypotheses 10 Significance of the study 10 Scope of the study 11
Source of Literature 12
Literature Review 13
Summary of Literature Review 28
Research Design 29
Sample size 30
Method of Data Collection 31
Method of data collection
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES
Presentation of Data 33
Test of Hypothesis 40
Discussion of Result 44
SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND
Summary of Findings 45 Conclusion 46 Recommendation 47
Limitation of the Study 48
It has been observed by researchers that many children today are being influence by what they view or see on the television, especially when it comes to cartoons production. For instance, there are reported cases of children misbehaving after their exposure to television programme, of cartoon type. Based on the above observation, the researcher investigated the effects of cartoon advert on children. Tom and Jerry, a type of cartoon children enjoy watching, was chosen as the case study, with sample drawn from pupils of uwani primary and (University of Nigeria Enugu campus) primary schools. The study investigated three hypotheses namely; Children learn something from the cartoons they watch. Children do understand some of the message of cartoons. Children should be encourage to watch some cartoons. Will be used to answer the research question on the effect of cartoon advert on children. The survey research was used in order to generate data from the respondents. The review of related literature and limited direct
interview will be carried out to strengthen the findings of the study. Structured questionnaire will also be administered to 120 pupils of both primary schools mentioned. Data analysis will be carried out using frequency distribution table and simple percentages. Based on the analysis of data and testing of hypothesis conclusion will be drawn. The results of the finding will be unfolded. Above all parents and guardian will find the research useful, as they will be better opportune to be selective on the kinds of cartoons their children watch. This will enable them to generate the desired influence of cartoons on the life of these children.
Children have become much more interested in cartoons, over many years and it has become a primary action to some lives. Typically, Children begin watching cartoons on the television at an early age of six months, and by the age two or three children enthusiastic viewers. This is one of the reasons why Steve Hostler in his edited write up-mental and psychological effects of children’s cartoons opined that to many children are watching too much television an indication that they are watching (even if they are cartoons) have become violent and addictive.
The marketing of cartoons have become over powering in the United State and so has the subliminal messages . The marketing according to Steve Hostler is targeted toward, the children to cause them to want to view the cartoons on a regular basis, but the subliminal messaging of the “cartoon” This is unfortunate because children watch cartoon on the television and they see material that is not appropriate for their age group.
Steve Hostler also alludes that children regularly are more likely to have mental and emotional problems, along with brain and eye injuries and unexpectedly the risk of a physical problem increase.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Oxford learner’s dictionary. Cartoon is defined as an amusing drawing in a newspaper or magazine especially one about politics current events picture. It is (animated cartoon) a film made of by photographing a series of gradually changing drawings so that they look as if they are moving.
The word “cartoon” from the world encyclopedia of comics, derives from the Italian word “cartone” which is a drawing used in the preparation of a fresco. However following the invention of the printing press, it expanded to include both a technical and contextual meaning for printed line drawing were often caricatures are included in political and pamphlet and broadsides.
Twentieth century serial comics, and to a greater extent, animation has tied the word’s contemporary meaning to children’s humour, cartoon has long existed on the periphery of broadcast televisions, consigned to the
Shadowy region of week day afternoon and Saturday morning. The networks evening programming has been remarkably empty of cartoon series that have lasted more than two seasons. Many of the cartoon character according to Jeremy G. Butter in him write up cartoon’s with which people are more familiar were not actually designed for television, but rather were exhibited initially for in cinema theatres.
Cartoons initially evolved in the teens, but their development was slowed down by their prohibitive cost.
Animation became more economically feasible in 1914 when Earth Hurd patented the animation Cell. The Cell is a sheet of transparent celluloid that is placed on top of a background drawing. Legal wrangling, however, slowed the acceptance of the cell and comparatively few silent cartoons were made.
Steamboat Willis (1928) was the first significant cartoon with synchronized sound and flowers and Trees (1932) was the first to use, the
three – colour Technicolor process (which became the cinemas principal colour process in the late 1930s). The final key to the success of the cartoon was an effective distribution to Jeremy G Butler in his write up, small studios had created cartoon with limited access to cinema theatres. In the 1930s, Major studio such as Paramount, Warner, Universal and MGM signed distribution deal with the cartoon studios, or created their own cartoon departments. The late 1930s, to 1950s were a “golden era” for the cartoon and it is from this era that the most theatrical cartoons on television are drawn.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been observed that so many children today are being influenced by what they view or see on the television, especially when it comes to cartoons production. There are reported cases of children misbehaving after his/her exposure to a television programme. To a great extent this has
not really helped situation that is one of the reasons why writers like Steve Hostler in his writer-up mental and psychological effects of children’s cartoons said that too many children are watching too much television and shows that they are watching have become violent and addictive.
Many of these children today have mental and emotional problem due to what they have watched on the television programme. In order to have stable and verifiable evidence(s) this study is set to work into the impacts and effects of cartoon adverts on the children.
TOM LAND JERRY WHAT IT IS?
Tom and Jerry were an animated cat (Tom) and mouse (Jerry) team who formed the basis of a successful series of metro-Goldwin – Meyer (MGM) theatrical cartoon shorts created, written and directed by animators William Hanna and Joseph Barbara. The series was produced by Metro-Goldwin – Meyer cartoon studio in Holly wood from 1940 until 1957, when the animation unit was closed down.
The plots of each short usually center on Tom’s frustrated attempts to catch Jerry, and the many-hem and destruction that ensures because they seem
to get along in some cartoon Shorts. It is unclear why Tom chases
Jerry so much, some reason given may include:
- Normal feline hunger
- Normal feline/mouse enmity
iii, The simple enjoyment of tormenting him
iv A conflict when both of them want the same thing usually food
- A game enjoyed by both of them
- A need to have Jerry out of the way.
The shorts are famous for using some of the most destructive gags ever devised for theatrical animation: Jerry slicing Tom in half’s Tom using everything from axe, pistols, riffs, dynamite, and poison to try to murder jerry, jerry stuffing Tom’s tail in a waffle iron, and so on.
Tom is a bluish-gray housecat, depending on the short, which lives a pampered life, while Jerry is a small brown mouse who always lives in close proximity to him. Tom is very quick tempered and thin-skinned, while Jerry is independent and opportunistic. Through very energetic and determine, Tom is no match for Jerry’s brains and wits. By the iris-out of
each cartoon, Jerry is usually shown triumphant, while Tom is shown as the loser. At times, Tom triumphs, both characters lose, or Tom and Jerry
ends the cartoon as friends. Both characters display sadistic tendencies, in that they are equally likely to take pleasure in tormenting each other.
However, depending on the cartoon, whenever one character appears to be in mortal danger, the other will develop conscience and save him.
In his attempts to catch Jerry, Tom often has to deal with the instrument of characters such as Meathead, a scruffy black alley cat who also wants to catch and eat Jerry, spike an angry, vicious guard bulldog who tries to beat up the cat, and mammy-two-shoes, a stereotyped African-
American domestic, whose face is never seen, and usually wallops the cat with a broom when he misbehaves.
Many generations of kids have grown up watching this memorable cat-mouse duo through out the world.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this research are
- To determine whether cartoons as a television programme affects children positively or negatively.
- To find out whether children should actually understand the message of cartoon
- To determine whether children should be encouraged or
discouraged from watching cartoons.
For the purpose of this study
The following research questions are formulated
- Do cartoons affect children positively or negatively?
- Do children actually understand the message of
- Should we encourage or discourage or children form watching cartoons.
Ho: Children were not affected by cartoon positives:
Hi; Children are affected by cartoon positively
Hi; children do not understand some of the message of
Hi: Children do not understand some of the message of
Ho: Children should not be encourage to watch cartoons
Hi: Children should be encouraged from watching some
The study is assumed to be well selected and is adequately representative of the population for accurate and reliable information for a meaningful study.
Again it is assumed that the respondents have access to televisions and Internet where they can watch cartoons.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study cannot be underestimated as it is of very significance not only to children who watch cartoons but also in many respects.
First, parents and significant other will find the research findings very useful, as they will be better opportune to be selective of the kinds of cartoons their wads watch.
Again it will serve as a reference point for other researches on the effect of cartoon advert on children. Finally the findings of this research work will help children be aware of the positive and negative implication of the cartoons they watch.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers the effect of cartoons advert on children.
A case study of Uwani primary school and UNEC primary school through the electronic media, which includes Television and Internet, It will also include the effect of the use of this medium on children.
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