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Development is the process of moving the world or mobilizing communities as a whole to engage in the task of self improvement with the available resources.  This project work is mainly based on the theoretical and practical approach of the impact of radio broadcasting in improving the educational system in Nigeria. In this work, the researchers tried to evaluate the importance of radio broadcasting in improving educational system in Nigeria. This work is divided into five chapters for a critical examination. The introduction gives an insight of the topic, the problems which are intended to discover objections and importance of the research work. Chapter two deals elaborately on journals, textbooks and other sources e.g. interviews that explains the literature sources or materials consulted for the project.  Chapter three explains the methods, sample and design use for the research and collection of data distributed and analyzing it for results. Chapter four is based on analysis, presentation of data collected and also testing of hypothesis. The last chapter which chapter five contains the recommendations, conclusions, and summary of findings. Recommendations are made base on the findings of collected data: that, poly-air programme should be improved for better education of the masses and also government should increase the subventions given to the media (radio) for effective dissemination of the programme.





Title Page                                                              ii

Approval Page                                                        iii

Dedication                                                             iv

Acknowledgement                                                   v

Abstract                                                                vi

Table of Contents                                                   vii



  • Background of the study 1
  • Statement of Problem 5
  • Objectives of the study 6
  • Significance of the study 7
  • Research Questions 8
  • Hypothesis of the study 8
  • Theoretical frame work 9

1.8  Scope of the study                                           11

1.9 limitation of study                                              11

1.10 Definition of Terms                                           12


  • Literature Review

2.1  Sources of Literature                                         14

  • The Review 14
  • Summary of literature review 27


3.0  Research Methodology                                      29

  • Research Design 29
  • Area of the Study 30
  • Research Population 30
  • Research Sample                                             30
  • Sampling Techniques 31
  • Instrument of Data Collection 33
  • Method of Data Collection 33
  • Method of Data Analysis 34
  • Expected Result 34


  • Data Presentation and Analysis                          36
  • Analysis of Research Questions/Hypothesis 39
  • Discussion of Result 53


5.0  Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Summary of Findings 54
  • Conclusion 55
  • Recommendations 56









Education is an important agent for development of an individual, community the social and the nation as a whole. According to behavioral, the child is born without a: self, he is voiced as a clean state on which the care givers write what they wish. Through education, individuals perceived and imbibe fundamental values and also develop new ones. Education also as part of socialization helps to develop an individual, which in turn leads to the improvement of the society. Again, certain prescribed goals are realized in areas of economic growth, healthcare, political and social awareness, political stability, self reliance, national identity, cultural correlation amongst others.

The need for all and sundry to be enlightened and will educated cannot be our emphasized and this, brought about the introduction of using the media which serves as a means include the radio, the television, films and cinemas and but the radio has continued to wax stronger as a medium of the people. We regard it as a medium of the people because radio has become a common sight in both urban and rural communities. It appeals to both literate and illiterate audiences as its programmes can be broadcasted in their local dialects. According to Ansah (1991:34)  agrees that “of all the mass media generally available to Nigerians, the radio is the most widespread and accessible in other words it breaks the barriers of distance as its reach is widely and highly penetrating .

Again, because of these qualities, the radio medium is seen as the effective means to get all and sundry educated.

Therefore, the role of the radio in educating the masses are found in some of its educational programmes like ESBS /IMT Poly-air programmes, win a million school debates and host of others. Education therefore is not only the development of individuals mortal powers, knowledge and ability but also the systematic training and instruction given out especially to the young ones in colleges and institutions through the media. Again, the media serves the purpose of enlightening the public both formally and informally.

The introduction of ESBS/IMT Poly- air, a radio programme could be linked with the introduction of educational broadcasting in Nigeria. It started with the commissioning of wired broadcasting services in Lagos, during the colonial administration. This services involves the system of using the radio stations to relay programmes to subscribers using cables connected to loud speakers installed in their homes, In the same vain the media gets to the audience, relaying different programmes.

Further, Enugu being the regional capital of the former eastern Nigeria the heart–beat of Igbo-land and presently a state capital which occupies a strategic position in the political and social organization of Nigeria requires its citizens to be well enlightened, self reliant, independent and academically stable.

Based on this, the need to use the media as an agent or instrument of formal learning becomes necessary.

Over the years, a lot of researches had been carried out on the issue of ESBS Poly-air programme in improving the educational standard in Enugu. Also to find out the relationship between the poly-air programmes, the institution offering it (IMT) and also the radio medium that airs it.

Today it is well accepted that the radio medium educational progammes produces good effects on the audience in the areas of comprehension, speaking abilities, perception, retention capabilities. There are also some problems for instance some lectures do not go in line with the media style of presentation. Secondly, there is one side communication and there is no feedback from the audiences. Again there may also be distractions at home and short of power supply from NEPA not withstanding these problems, ESBS/IMT Poly-air has its objectives as:

  • To help non-regular students and workers improve their academic pursuit through radio medium.
  • To contribute to the uplifting system of education in Enugu state by impacting knowledge to those that are interested.
  • Since the radio has the ability to permeable the interiors of the state, the ruralities also listens to the lecturers.

The study among other things finds out the effectiveness of Poly-air progammes on the students. Also, it tries to find out if the timing of the programme is suitable for students and hold their interest.

The study also finds out the importance and the acceptability of the programme by the public and finally, if this radio programme is favouring education the masses as compared to the regular students programmes.


The importance of education can never be over-emphasized. It is the taproot of civilization and rural development. Development is achieved, when there is an appreciable level in basic human needs, including high literacy level.

The objectives of the study are as follows:

  • To find out if the public truly appreciate the radio programme on its efforts of educating the masses.
  • To create awareness on the needs for those that are not opportuned to attempt regular programme in tertiary institution, to enroll in the programme.
  • To ascertain the extent to which the programme has improved human life especially amongst the youths in the areas of comprehension and speaking abilities, behaviour and character.

This study guide is necessary, bearing in mind that the world is ever changing and developing western world, the use of computers to educate the population and give them wider knowledge of the world is very much accessible. This makes them to be scientifically, technologically, educationally and socially developed. Nigeria as we know cannot be compared to western world and these brings about the needs for the public to be educated, those who were not opportune to enroll into various institutions. If learning comes to poly-air programmes and benefits from its academic effort. It is imperative to the masses and find out the roll of poly-air programme in educating the masses and at the same time examines the problems encountered in pushing the programme forward.


  • Does ESBS time this educational programme to suit its masses of Enugu metropolis and environs?
  • Is there any appreciable level on the educational system of Enugu state since the introduction of the programme?
  • Does the programme help to develop individuals intellect on the perception of issue and events in the society?

H1:  Radio broadcasting programme are effective in educating the populace.

Ho: Radio educational programme are not effective in educating the populace.

H2: Poly-air lectures are well packaged to enhances comprehension of the audience.

Ho: Poly-air programmes are not well packed to enhance comprehension of the audience.

H3: The timing of poly-air programme on the radio is suitable to the students.

Ho. The timing of poly-air programme on the radio is not suitable to the students

H4: ESBS/IMT Poly-air programme helps to improve the educational system in Enugu state.

Ho: ESBS/IMT Poly-air programme does not helps to improve the educational system in Enugu state.


The most appropriate theory for this study is the critical theory propounded by Stuart Hall (1932). Staurt hall, a sociologist was of the opinion that mass broadcast serve as a means by which the “haves” in the society gain the willing support of the “have-nots” to maintain their status quo.  To him, the mass broadcast functions to maintain the dominance of those already in positions of power and authority.  Therefore, Hall believes that mass broadcast mainly serve the rich, affluence and the powerful and exploit the poor, the weak, the needy and the masses.  Mass broadcast merely celebrate the political claims the democracy works, and the man in power at the national or state level is the best leader of the time.  In application therefore, state broadcast apply this theory in broadcasting; telling the people that the governor of the state is the “Messiah” the “God sent leader” and the “hope of the masses”.  The theory uses the concept of hegemony which means preponderant influence or authority especially of one man or nation or over another.  Broadcast use this concept to impose the leading class ideology on the rest of the society (the masses) within a capital state.  Although hegemony is not force, but a plot of silence oppositions, the weak and the needy.


The scope covers the impact of radio broadcasting in improving Nigeria Educational System on objectivity using ESBS/IMT poly air as the focus.


This study is an assessment of how ESBS/IMT. Poly-air programme has helped or is helping in the improvement of educational system in the Enugu state.

Another limitation is based on fiancé in covering or conducting opinion poll from different part of the state. Notwithstanding the mentioned problems, it is expected that the results obtained will be valid and add to the existing body of knowledge in the areas of attitude and behavioural change towards the educational programme



The conceptual and operational terms in the study ESBS/IMT Poly-air programme

  • Conceptual Definition: programmes that impact knowledge on the people through the radio medium.
  • Operational Definitions:- Polytechnic on air through Enugu state broadcasting service which helped non-regular students and workers to be educated.
  • Educational system: Conceptual definition: standardized systematic training and instruction, usually intellectual and moral training.
  • Operational definition: Ordered set of ideas and effort that are made to impact knowledge through the academic and non-academic process, usually to develop characters and mental powers.

–      Enugu state: Conceptual Definition: – organized political community with its apparatus of government, such a community forming part of the federal republic of Nigeria.

–      Operational definition:- The regional capital of the former eastern Nigeria and currently Enugu state capital.


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