- Background of the study
This study is on the influence of western television programmes on the cultural values of Nigeria youths using Caritas University Enugu Students as a case study. The term culture was been defined by differently by different people. The different definitions attached to culture are based on the differences in the orientation of the people.
According to Ekeh (1989), culture is constructing used in an attempt to analyse and integrate the events and ideas on brand spectrum of areas of society.
Jeknyinka (2002), states that from wider perspective, culture includes the total repertoire of human action which are socially transmitted from generation to generation. Obiora (2002), says the transformation of culture is gradual and not sudden. He (2002), contends that culture is a continue process of change. It changes exactly the same way as the human being change. It is dynamic, learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through content or means of communication flood from generation to another.
The Nigerian culture is observed to be fading out as a result of acceptance and adaption of the modernist’s solution on to underdevelopment. One of such theories which relates to this subtle method of assault international communication is given by Lerners (1956).
In his concept of empathy, Lerner states that the inhabitants of third world nations must learn to empathise with the west for modern transformation of their societies to be possible. Schramm (1964), on the other hand, developed an interesting model in which equates the level development of communication to various nations. Access to these mass media (Radio, Television, Filing, Telephone and Newspaper) is linked to individual modernity. Nigeria and other third world countries have reacted to these finding by inventing a substantial amount of their foreign exchange earning to import radio and television transmitters and sets. The television programmes especially provides many powerful models for children and abundant opportunities for observational learning.
The television programmes include:
- Depiction of sex
- Drug and alcohol abuse
- Vulgar language, behaviours etc that most parents do not want their children to imitate.
Studies have been found by early adolescence that the average Nigerian children have watched thousands of dramatized murder and countless other acts of violence on television for many years, psychologists have debated the question of whether watching violence on TV has detrimental effects on children. A number of experiments both inside and outside the laboratory have found evidence that viewing TV violence is related to increased aggression on children. Nigeria as exemplified by trends in Enugu metropolis where western exports of television entertainment, information are shown in NTA Enugu, ESBS television, Minaj, Channels TV, Cartoon network, ESPN- Expounded Sports Programme Network channel provided by various satellite transmission operators as DSTV, Multi-choice, music television, Euro-sports etc have raised Nigerian eyebrows to such western television programmes, thereby making them to behave like them, associate like them and even speak like them. Even our generation that is shown on NTA Enugu and the youth perspective on ESBS are presented by youth and replete with music video of western origin dominated by rap stars (late) Tupac, Beyonce, Ashanti, 50-cent, Sean Paul, Kelly Rowland, Celine Dion etc. It is the researcher’s belief that western television especially American television exports have a strategic “weapon” aimed to overpower the cultural values of Nigerian youths.
- Statement of the problem
The influence of the western television programmes on the cultural values of Nigerian youths have been said to be serious problems facing Nigerians. Some of these problems are:
- Inadequate policy to guard the youths toward western TV Programmes.
- There is an erosion on the cultural values
- The imitation of western culture especially the American culture
- The Nigerian youths are faced with brain wash.
Therefore, if the above problems are not being taken care of, it will lead to a total destruction of Nigerian culture.
- Research questions
The research questions are arranged questions meant to be asked by the researcher and receive feedback (answer) from the respondents, for a researcher to achieve her aim; the following questions should be used:
- Do Nigerian youths expose themselves more to TV than other media?
- Do they prefer western TV programmes to locally produced ones and why if yes?
- Do Nigerian youths identify more with locally or foreign TV stars as models?
- Will improvement of local TV/movies industries improve Nigerian youth’s preference for local TV programmes?
- Objective of the study
The researcher’s objective is to conduct an in-depth research on the influence of the western television programmes on the cultural values of the Nigerian youths with an insight to determine its implication to the cultural values of Nigerian youth are:
- To show how the contents of western television programme effect Nigerian university students.
- To examine its pervasive impact on the cultural values of Nigerian university students.
- To know how to isolate western television programmes from Nigerian.
- Significance of the study
- The research will help in possible dilution, domination and finally absorption of the African/Nigerian culture which unit the present has been characterised with good neighbourliness, respect for the elders, virtuousness, community orientation and collectivism.
- It will enable the government and policy makers to put adequate measures in a place to check the movement of western television programmes to Nigerian.
- It will help move the idea of imitating western cultures or ways of life from Nigeria.
- The conduct of this research will enable the government to know what role the media can play in the development of a country and therefore, harness the mass media especially TV in the democratic process and development process in general.
- Scope/Delimitations of the study
The scope of this study is to find out how the western TV programmes affects the cultural values of Nigerian youths using Caritas University Enugu as a case study. The institution is been noted for a constant influence of western television programmes on their cultural values. Hence, the need for choosing the institution as a case study commenced. In the cause of the research, oral interview were consulted on both the staffs and students of the institution. But the research depends more on the questionnaires which were distributed to the students and staffs and were completed and returned. The researcher also consulted some textbooks, newspapers and journals with a lot of information pertaining to the study.
- Limitations of the study
Though the research work is on the influence of the western television programmes on the cultural values of Nigerian youths, it is limited to Caritas university, Enugu, using five departments that were randomly selected from faculties and hundred and fifty questionnaires that were distributed to them. This is because of time and resource were available, similar studies would have been done in other private university/schools in the country so as to ensure more embalming result.
- Definitions of terms
Conceptual: It means young men and women
Operational: It is defined as students in various universities in Nigeria and who falls between the ages of 15-30.
Conceptual: The means of giving news and opinions to large number of people.
Operational: The media is operationalized as TV broadcast used to generate or circulate information to the public.
- CULTURAL IDENTITY
Conceptual: it is the self-definitions of self-image and self-perception of a person as a member of a group exenterating uniform culture that are consistent with the values of that group.
Operational: It is those commonly shared socio- political interpretation and meaning related to the beliefs, norms, values, attitudes and behaviours within Nigeria.
- CULTURAL DOMINANCE
Conceptual: This refers to nations of neo-colonialism that uses policy and practice that have effects to dominate the culture and affairs of less developed countries.
Operational: It means the conscious and unconscious domination by western by western TV media on the media system of Nigeria.
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