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This research work is aimed at finding the journalist that is freer between
those in private and government owned media organizations, using Raypower and FRCN Enugu as a focus, to achieve maximum and accurate
findings. The researcher made use of survey design. To gather necessary
information, copies of questionnaire were administered and retrieved from
the respondents who were randomly selected and also personal interview
was conducted, the findings show that the journalists in government
owned media organizations are freer than those in privately owned media
organizations. The researcher also made some recommendations based on
the findings of the research. That more opportunities should be given to
the journalists in private owned media i.e. they should be allowed to
broadcast what they see or the information they get as long as it is proven
to be true. Since it has been identified that source credibility is essential in
broadcasting, as it affects the audience believe, so both government and
private owned journalists should be given equal rights to broadcast what
they see and how it was seen without limit and threats.
Title Page — – – – – – – – – – -i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – – -ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – -iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – -iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – -v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – -vi
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – -1
1.1 Background Of The Study – – – – – -1
1.2 The Concept Of Press Freedom – – – – – -3
1.3 Statement Of The Problem – — – – – – -5
1.4 Objective Of The Study – – – – – -6
1.5 Research Questions – – – – – – -6
1.6 Significance Of The Study – – – – – -7
1.7 Scope And Limitation Of The Study – – – -8
1.8 Definition Of Terms – – – – – – – -8
2.0 Literature Review – – – – – – -10
2.1 sources of Literature – – – – – – – -12
2.2 Review of Relayed Literature – – – – – – -12
2.2.1 Codes Of Ethics For Journalist – – – – – -13
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – — – – -31
2.4 Summary of the Literature Review – – – – – -32
3.1 Research Methodology – – – – – – -34
3.2 Area Of Study – – – – – – – -34
3.3 Population Of The Study — – – – – – -34
3.4 Research Sample Size And Sampling Technique – – -35
3.5 Instrument For Data Collection – – – – – -35
3.6 Validity Of The Instrument – – – – – – – 39
3.7 Method Of Data Collection – – – – – – -36
3.8 Method Of Data Analysis – – – – – -37
4.1Data Presentation And Analysis – – – – – -38
4.2 Discussion And Findings – – – – – – -53
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – -55
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – -56
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – -57
Reference – – – – – – – – -59
Appendix – – – – – – – – -61
The term mass media according to McQuail [2000] is shortened to describe
a means of communication that operates on a large scale reaching and
involving virtually everyone in a society to a greater or lesser degree.
Media is plural of medium which means a channel or vehicle through which
something is transmitted. In other words, mass media are channels of
communication in a modern society, primarily the print and the electronic
media. MCQuail further describes the mass media as the organized many
receivers within a short space of time. The mass media are impersonal
communication sources that reach large audiences. The primary function of
the mass media system is to provide information to several millions of
people. The mass media are extremely influential. Each of the media is
presumed tom affect perceptions and behaviour in a distinctive way. They
can affect the society and vice versa. The mass media are the uniquely
modern means of public communication and much of their importance lies
in the fact that they are a major cause of whatever modes of perception,
thought, public discourse and political action. Because of their size and the
larger number of people they reach the mass media tremendous impact on
society. Murphy (1977) sums up societal impacts of the media in different
way as oil, give and dynamite. As oil, Murphy asserts that media of
communication keep the world running smoothly by helping individuals
adjust to the reality of lives. They keep society on and healthy by
suggesting solutions that are socially acceptable.
As given, social cohesion is maintained by communication. Murphy
contends that the media give all of us including strangers, something to
talk about by setting agenda of discussion. And that over the years,
communication builds up and reinforces the fabrics that hold a society
together. Murphy also describes the mass media as dynamites that can rip
the society apart. A good example of this is the propaganda campaigns
that preceded the Russian revolution in 1917 and Hitler‟s rise to the
German chancellorship in 1933. Similarly, the mass media particularly the
newspaper and magazine played a tremendous role in the struggle for
Nigeria‟s independence in 1960.
There is a general notion that press freedom is bard to define. While others
look at it as the night to communicate ideas, opinions and information
through the printed word without government restraint, the difficulty
actually lies in defining the word “Press” itself. Is the word “press” made up
of newspaper, magazine, journals or does it include broadcasting and other
forms of communication yet dreamt of? Another dilemma in demystifying
the concept of press freedom is in the degree of freedom sought or implied
in the concept.
Press freedom is practically the same thing with freedom of expression
which many people believe is the mother of all freedom. Press freedom
connotes a free flow of information and the rights to disseminate
information. According to Thomas Matting, Resident Representative
Nigeria, the relevance of the media in democracy is undisputed. Media
freedom is a fundamental political freedom based on the right to free
speech. The media set the stage for public discussion and undertakes to be
a watchdog of government action. But media freedom is fragile, good and
journalists are particularly exposed to threats. They operate at the
frontlines of a battle for political power that is often waged with deadly
weapons. Censorship, harassment and imprisonment of journalists and
political control of news outlets are some of the most often cited dangers
to a free media. Reports about killings of journalists frequently shock the
public less often cited is the overall working and welfare situation of
journalists. However, the freedom from fear and want is one of the four
fundamental human freedoms that the us president Franklin D. Roosevelt
emphasized in 1941. Without it being granted, a country can have perfect
media laws; it can establish codes of conducts for journalists and boost
media plurality (all this fundamentally endangered it Journalists operate
under conditions of fear and deprivation).
Though, there is no absolute press freedom anywhere in the world.
However, Nigeria which professes to have one of the most free presses in
Africa has a lot of limitations to press freedom. Sunday
(2006 : 115) argued that press freedom is limited in the overall interest of
the society by the constitution, the legislature, the courts and the
government. It is contradictory to discover that the some constitution
which guarantees press freedom takes away the same freedom it gives to
media men. The 1999 constitution for instance, has given conditions for
expression of freedom. According to this statute book, expression of
freedom is subject to any law that is reasonably Justifiable in a democratic
Social researchers have argued that media operations are significantly
influenced by ownership. Mediated information is always filtered through a
prism; that is shaped by actors at all levels of information gathering,
packaging and dissemination from the importer/produced through the
series of increasingly senior editions. Each brings his various biases to bear
as the process the information. Owners are no exception. Content is
created within a framework and media owners have their own framework
that is shaped by ideological, political, commercial or other interest. Given
this background, the study provides an analysis of the contemporary media
environment in both private and public organizations.
The aim of the research is to investigate the climate of press freedom in
the media environment of public and private organizations. The way to do
this research is to analyses the trend in media developments in Nigeria and
elsewhere and to investigate the climate of media practice in general. In
order to carry out this research the following objectives will be followed.
To examine the meaning of additional freedom on public and private
media organizations.
To define the extent of state interference in the operations of media
To assist in promoting media quality in Nigeria.
The researcher‟s attention in this research work will be focused on how
to answer the following questions;
To what extent is there connection between press freedom, and the
structure of media ownership in the private and public organizations
How can governmental regulations unintentionally harm press freedom
while protecting other freedoms?
To what extent does the establishment of a press council guarantee
press freedom
To what extent is there a global cultural crisis around freedom of the
The research provides an overview of current professional practice of
journalism as against ownership structures and the exercise of press
freedom. It also throws light on the major challenges and the current
critical issues impeding the growth and development of the media and
hindering their effective functioning as key agents of good governance in
Nigeria. The project also supports journalist in their bid to unit their efforts
to raise professional standards and thus strengthen the social standing of
The aim of this study is to investigate the climate of press freedom in both
private public media organizations. Other aspects of the media field are not
included in the study. In theoretical part, the study analysis partly te
relationship between press freedom and the media ownership between
structures both in public and private organization, other elements of media
strategy are not included. The study does not deal with the detail operative
level of media company‟s activities. In addition, it does not have any
certain geographic area it would concentrate on.
Airtime: starting time of TV to radio programme.
Freelance: An unaffiliated writer, photographer, cameraman, artist or
other person who is available on assignment or contract basis.
Internal communication: communication with personal or members of a
company or organisation.
Documentary: information film or television show with a unified subject
or purpose.
External publication: a publication issued by an organisation to people
outside its own employee or membership groups, such as to customers,
the local community, the financial wild etc.


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