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Nanotechnology promises to improve the quality of life with decisive breakthroughs in various disciplines such as material science, medicine, chemical engineering, and electronics. Within the last decade the fabrication and the hand line of nanoparticles has become increasingly interesting from the scientific as well as the technological point of view. Nanotechnology has an exceptionally high impact for the electronic industry, because future progress in electronics requires the development of high performance integrated circuits on the nanometer scale. With this regard inorganic semiconducting nanoparticles are considered to be a promising alternative to the application of organic semiconductors. The realization of thin film transistors based on Cdse or pbse nanoparticles has been already reported in literature. However, for a mass production of electronic components the application of non-toxic, low-cost materials and processes are required.









The achievements and perspectives of nanosciences and nanotechnology determine the modern stage of scientific and technical progress-printing and packaging are now and will be influenced by the achievement. Thus as example, electronics industry is seeking next generation manufacture methods to produce cheaper, smaller, and more flexible components. The trend towards ever-smaller semiconductors was first noticed as long ago as 1965. That’s when Gordon moore foresaw the future state and formulated what is not known as Moore’s law. The number of components that can fit on an integrated circuit (and quantity of information, correspondently) doubles every 18 months to two years.  On the moore’s diagram at beginning of 1980s the mnimum dimension of elements of electronic devices to the period of 2005-2010 must be less 0.1Nmor nm. It means that the elements in electronic devices must have sizes of nanometer dimension.

The imprinting lithography is now one of the perspective ways for producing micro-and nano-sized devices. That is why it is reasonable to look at the lithography and photo-lithography history at all, as well as the way of their transformation to one of the progressive manner for mmiaturization, and to show some principles and historical aspects of dispersed systems using in Graphic Arts and photographical methods including educational, scientific and technological problems of nanozised systems preparation and applications in printing and packaging.


Now the words like nanotechnology, nanophysics, nanochemistry, nanocomposites became rather popular and very important. Fundamental scientific investigations are obtaining essential support from leading industry firms and state organization. Nonosciences and nanotechnologies are now in the first line of scientific and technical progress. The winners of Nobel prizes for 2007 year in physics fert, and P. Gruenberg and chemistry G.ErH (2007), were awarded for scientific achievements and practical applications in field of nanophysics and nanochemistry. There is organized from 2008 the special so called “parallel Noble prize” in area of nanotechnologies with equal to the Noble prizes financial level.

What does “nano” mean “indeed”? the Greek word “nanos” means a draft that is very small man or woman. We know a scale of length meter (m), millimeter (mm) = 10-3m, micrometer (NCM) = 10-6m, nanometer(nm) = 10-9m. thus particles which have size of several nanometers – a few tens of nanometers, sometime a hundred nanometers are called as nanosized particles or nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructures, nanofibres, nanotubes.

Now is well known that nanoparticles can have quite unusual physical and chemical properties. That opens new ways for creation and development of new substances, materials and processes. That’s why the attention and interest to this field of science and technology were growth extraordinary the entire world. There are editing new magazines dealt with only these topics. The results of researches in these areas of science are among the most important publications in well known “old” magazines such as for example “journal of American chemical. Society” – printing and packaging cannot be a side from the trends of scientific and technical development.

Nanosized particles are dispersed system that traditionally had been the object of colloid chemistry which is indeed physics and chemistry of dispersed systems of the wide dimension and surroundings range. Now the interest of researchers to nanosized system exists by the fact of inconvenient properties due to quantum-sized effects.

One of the main reasons of the changes at the transfer to nanoscale sizes is the enlarging of part of surface atoms in dispersed phase if compare to the volume phase. Decreasing of sizes dispersed particles leads to the essential growth of surface energy including free surface energy and chemical potential. Some displays of that are changes in optical spectra. Absorbance of nanosized dispersions shifts to short waves. The aggregation of nanoparticles leads to shift into long wave’s area.






Absorption spectra of colloid solutions of Cdx Zn1-xs at the Na2s abundance, x= 0.5a. The concentrations of Na2S surplus were 0(1), 1-10-4 (2), 3-10-4 (3), 5-10-4 (4), 1-10-3 (5), 1-5-10-3 (6) and 5-10-3, m (7).

  1. The spectrum of the fresh prepared colloid solution (1) and spectra of the self – restrained solution at 95-980C during 25 (2), 55 (3) and 100 minutes (4). The line 5 is a dependence of nanoparticles sizes from time of their preparing

We can say that nanosized particles were probably to be present in many dispersed colloid solutions and polymer layers at all. That is applicable for example to light sensitive thin grain argentums halogenid emulsions. But there could not be displayed their interesting properties in wide range of dispersions. From these positions we can look at many dispersed systems which had been applied in historical development of Graphic Arts.


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