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Title Page i
Declaration ii
Certification Page iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables x
Abstract xi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Research Hypotheses 5
1.6 Scope of the Study 5
1.7 Significance of the Study 6
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 6
2.0 Literature Review 8
2.1 Sources of Literature 8
2.2 The Review of Relevant Literature 9
2.2.1 The Concept of Development 11
2.2.2 The Role of Town Crier in Rural Development 14
2.2.3 The Encoder-Decoder Mechanism 16
2.2.4 The Town Crier’s Narrowcast 17
2.3 Theoretical Framework 18
2.4 Summary of Literature Review 21
3.0 Research Methodology 22
3.1 Introduction 22
3.2 Research Design 22
3.3 Population of the Study 23
3.4 Sampling Technique/Sample Size 24
3.5 Description of the Research Instrument 24
3.6 Validity of Data Gathering Instrument 25
3.7 Method of Data Collection 25
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 25
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis 26
4.1 Introduction 26
4.2 Testing of Hypotheses 36
4.3 Discussion of Findings 41
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 44
5.1 Introduction 44
5.2 Summary 44
5.3 Conclusion 45
5.4 Recommendations 45
5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies 46
References 47
Appendix A 49
Appendix B 50
Table 1: Demographic data on sex
Table 2: Age distribution
Table 3: Marital status
Table 4: Educational qualification
Table 5: Occupational distribution
Table 6: Does the community has a town crier
Table 7: How do they carry out their function
Table 8: Positive contribution of the town crier to the community
Table 9: Town crier as a tool for disseminating information
Table 10: Neglect of the town crier
Table 11: Mobilized function of the town crier towards achieving
Table 12: Town crier a link between opinion leaders and the people.
Table 13: Can opinion leaders counter information.
Table 14: Government support on the town crier
Table 15: Instrument used in disseminating information.
Table 16: The extent of mobilized function portrayed by the town crier.
Table 17: Image portrayed by the town crier.
Table 18: The responsibility of imbalance flow of information in the
Table 19: Impression of the role played by the town crier.
This work is on the role of the traditional town crier in mobilizing Adazi-Nnukwu in
Anaocha Local Government Area for development. This study is born out of the desire
to discover the roles played by the town crier, to see if it is effectively carried out for
development purpose. To achieve this, survey research method was adopted with
questionnaire as the instrument to elict responses from the respondents. Findings
drawn from the study revealed that the town crier through his mobilized function has to
a large extent has helped the Adazi-Nnukwu towards attaining required and desired
development. The study also revealed that the town crier has contributed to great
developmental changes in Adazi-Nnukwu. The study therefore recommended that the
limitations of the town crier should be properly examined. Also the government of the
state should support the town crier in Adazi-Nnukwu so that more development will
come to the community.

1.1 Background of the study
Human communication is simple but sometimes a complex process by which
individuals exchange and share ideas, information and various forms of symbolism with
Traditional system of communication has been in use in various ways as folk
media and oral media. The town crier as a traditional communicator is symbolically is
an organizational media worker, who is appointed by the king or leader of a village to
disseminate information and developments of all types to the people.
Town criers are mostly found in the rural settlement because of the inability of
the rural dwellers to read and write. They serve as a means of disseminating news to
the people. They are appointed by the king or community leader, and he is charged
with the responsibility of announcing time for meetings, days of communal labour and
important communication link between the opinion leaders and the people, using either
the wooden gong or the drum. He is seen as the purveyor of news, and an authoritative
messenger. Every message or sentence he makes is usually repeated for emphasis.
Buttressing this point, Etukudo (1989: 211) notes: “The town crier is a member
of the town or village caucus with the responsibility to communicate the decisions of the
town’s highest administering body to the rest of the people. He uses a wooden gong,
and most times steel gong, he is sees as the purveyor of the news, with impeccable
The town crier adopts strategies that enable him to disseminate his information;
he stops at a strategic point or quiet places, strikes his instruments repeatedly in order
to draw attention to himself before making any announcement. The seriousness of such
announcements are usually realized when they are made very early in the morning or
very late at night, these are usually periods of silence in the village.
Benson – Eluwa (2010) noted that the town crier is a person, whose job is to
walk through the town sharing and disseminating news, making official announcements
etc. He moves round the village beating his metal gong and making his announcements
from one village the other, mostly in the evening or every early in the morning.
The town crier uses the gong, wood block, skin drum or any validated instrument
as attention direction device (ADD). These instruments are beaten or played to attract
attention to the audience before the headline is given. This is followed by a call to
attention “Genu ntioooo’’ which means pay attention.
Finally the outcome of the town crier’s message on the receivers is that it
provides them with information, education, entertainments, enlightenment and brings
out integration among other effects (Burgeon,1978)
Brief history of Adazi-Nnukwu.
Adazi-Nnukwu is a town in Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State,
and falls within the Nri-Awka Area. It has an area of 27.2sq km. It shares boundaries in
the North-East with Agukwu (Nri) and Agulu, in the North-West with Nimo. In the West
with Oraukwu, in the South with Neni, and in the South-East with Obeledu.
There is only one version of the tradition of origin of the people of AdaziNnukwu, and it speaks about a man called Okotu who had two wives, he was said to
have broken off from wandering tribe of Adda people and settled with this (SIC) two
wives and children at Amauka in Adazi-Enu. From the first wife came descendants of
Adazi-Enu, Adazi-Ani and Adazi-Nnukwu. The second wife bore sons that were founders
of ichida, and Amichi.
The founding of Adazi-Nnukwu is a studying in classical Igbo epic. The
progenitor of Adazi-Nnukwu is named Obunnkwu, the son of Okonikpa, who was the
son of Okotu. Obunnkwu is reputed to be an insatiable drinker of water. So because of
this uncontrollable thirst, his partimony was an expense of land close to the stream. But
instead of setting where he was given, he pitched his tent chose to his relations (the
other Okotu sons). But this move appeared to have been dictated that some people
were already settled in the area that he was given. This people were the Umudiana, the
only autochthonous people of Adazi-Nnukwu. Obunnkwu eventually settled at a place
called Aro-Umuonyegwu, otherwise known as Ana-Isi-Ora. The immediate descendants
of Umuonyegwu became the Amolu ward.
Adazi-Nnukwu in the present day has three clans namely Amolu clan, Nnukwu
clan and Amata clan. The Amolu clan is considered eldest of the three clans.
1.2 Statement of the research problem
Like a vaccine capable of reducing disease, town crier is a simple effective tool
for achieving development goals to prevent fragile state and help mobilize the
community. The research is meant to study the town crier which is almost neglected
and finds out how he carries out his function on daily basis and also ensure how it
promotes development and mobilizes them for development in Adazi-Nnukwu.
It is necessary to evaluate how the town crier has helped in the development of
Adazi-Nnukwu. Therefore, this research seeks to examine the impact of the town crier
in the socio-economic, political and cultural development of Adazi-Nnukwu.
1.3 Objectives of the study
These are the objectives of this study
1. To investigate the role the town crier plays in mobilizing Adazi-Nnukwu towards
attaining developmental changes.
2. To find out strategies the town crier adopts in mobilizing Adazi-Nnukwu community.
3. To determine whether the town crier has any problem in mobilizing Adazi-Nnukwu
1.4 Research questions
The following questions were formulated by the researcher in a bid to find
solution to the problem stated above.
i. In what ways has the town crier attained developmental changes?.
ii. To what extent has the town crier mobilized Adazi-Nnukwu in attaining
iii. TO what limitations has the town crier affect the people of Adazi-Nnukwu
towards achieving developmental changes ?.
1.5 Research hypotheses
These hypothetical assumptions were advanced for testing .The analysis of data.
Generated in the course of study will confirm either the veracity or otherwise of
H1: The town crier has in so many ways attained developmental changes in AdaziNnukwu.
H0: The town crier has not attained developmental changes in Adazi-Nnukwu.
H2: The town crier has mobilized the people of Adazi-Nnukwu in attaining
H0: The town crier has not mobilized the people of Adazi-Nnukwu in attaining
H3: The limitations of the town crier affects the people of Adazi-Nnukwu towards
achieving developmental changes.
H0: The limitation of the town crier does not affect the people of Adazi-Nnukwu
towards achieving developmental changes.
1.6 Scope of study
The research is limited to Adazi-Nnukwu in Anaocha Local Government Area of
Anambra State.
The choice of the place has to do with the fact that its population is
predominately rural based, and with that the role of the town crier will be properly
examined in the area.
1.7 Significance of the study
It is accepted that 80% of Nigerians population are rurally based. So for effective
communication to take place rural dwellers need to be reached or visited in their living
Theoretically, the study will help to create awareness on the need for the town
crier in rural settlements.
Also the study will go a long way to benefit many academics and the government
on the role of the town crier as few works have been done on the subject. It will also
increase the level of perception, attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of the public
especially in Adazi-Nnukwu on the services of the town crier in mobilizing them for
Again, this study will draw the attention of government to empower town criers
all over the nation.
And finally the study will be beneficial of the both town criers and rural dwellers
because it will pin point how helpful the town crier is in every community.
1.8 Operational definition of terms
Three terms were optionalized in this study. They are town crier, mobilization
and development.
Town Crier – A person who is being chosen by the village head to inform and
announce the people about happenings in the village or community.
Mobilization – The processing of organizing or preparing the people for something;
rapier change in the community.
Development – The act of inventing something or bringing something into existence.


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