It has been established that the “Western nations dominate the electronic media around the world which in return has a powerful effect on the Third World cultures by imposing on them Western views, and therefore, destroy their native cultures”. As a result, this study examined the impact of Electronic Media on Cultural Imperialism on the culture and values of Enugu urban residents due to their exposure to electronic media. To obtain factual results, the researcher adopted survey research method. The study was carried out in Enugu urban with population of 722,664, out of which, 400 representatives were studied through interview and questionnaire distribution. The researcher adopted cultural imperialism theory of media as the theoretical framework. Other literatures were reviewed empirically. The findings of the study show that electronic media contents are main causes of cultural imperialism, the effects of the cultural colonialism of Enugu residents are negative and harmful and that electronic media should be blamed for the high level of cultural assassination brought on people by the media. The researcher, therefore, recommended that International Press Conference should be organized to discuss ways forward to ensure balance flow of information between the Developed and Developing Nations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – — – – – – – -ii
Dedication – – — – – – – – iii
Acknowledgment – – – – – — – iv
Abstract – – – — – – – – v
Table of contents – – – – – — vi
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Background of the study – – – — – 1
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – 4
1.3 Objectives of the study – – — — 5
1.4 Significance of the study – – — – – 6
1.5 Research questions – – — – – 6
1.6 Research Hypothesis – – – – – – 7
1.7 Theoretical framework – – – – — – 8
1.8 Scope of the study – – – – – 10
1.9 Limitation of study – – – – 11
1.10 Definition of terms – – – – – 11
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.1 Source of literature- – – – – – 15
2.2 The Review – – – – – – – – 22
2.3 Summary of Literature – – – – – 27
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Method – – – – – – 29
3.2 Research Design – – – — – – – 29
3.3 Area of study – – – – – – – 30
3.4 Research population – – – – – – 30
3.5 Research sample – – – – – – – 30
3.6 Sample Techniques – – – – – – 31
3.7 Instrument of Data Collection – – – 32
3.8 Method of data collection – – – – – 32
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 33
3.10 Expected Results – – – – – – -34
CHAPTER FOUR: Presentation and analysis of Data
4.1 Data presentation and Analysis – – – – -35
4.2 Testing of research Hypothesis – – – – -39
4.3 Discussion for the Findings – – – – – 42
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary – – – – – – — – 45
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – — – -46
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – -47
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting ones powerful culture over a desirable, least or weak culture of others. It is usually the case that the former belongs to a large, economically or military powerful nation and the latter belongs to a smaller, less powerful one (wikipeadia.com). Another online dictionary described the term as the “act of being invaded by the culture of a large powerful military nations which the third world nations accuse the western counterparts of”.
Cultural imperialism in the parlance of mass communication states that “western nations dominate the media around the world which, in return, has a powerful effects on the Third World Culture by imposing on the Western views and therefore, destroying their native cultures”.
Schiler (1973:3) this cultural imperialist theorist observed that the western civilization produces the media (films, news comics etc) because they have money to do so. The rest of the world purchases these products because it is cheaper for them to do so rather than produce their own. Therefore, the third world nations are watching media filled with western world’s way of living, believing, language mode of attire etc. Those recipients then would state to emulate the developed nation’s culture thereby relegating their original cultures.
The fundamental fact behind colossal cultural imperialism is electronic media imported into Africa. Through television, computers, radio etc, the powerful nations persistently transfer their patterns of culture to the weak, poor nations, who acquire those hard and software without judgment/assessment. Agbo (2007:176) observed that “this problem is really that of covetousness, which is, not appreciating what is your own while craving for others.” He therefore stressed that this problem of cultural imperialism is more endemic in Africa as the Asian nations have grown, largely to domestically take care of their information needs. McQuail (2000: 232) also supported the fact that Korea and India daily view is home produced contents.
Boyd-Barrett and Rantance (1998:49) recalled that the rise of the global news agencies of the 20th century was made possible by the media technology and stimulated by war, trade, colonialism etc, (cited in McQuail, 2000:219). These global media agencies have exerting force on Africa with contents which are very detrimental to African cultures.
The influence of media on cultural imperialism in Enugu State and Nigeria in general cannot be over-emphasized. The general electronic technologies from Western World have become a welcome commodity in the Igbo land, making the imperialism of indigenous cultures most affective one. The use of satellite cable television and acquisition of culture-programmed computers from USA, China the have sharffered the culture and humility of the people. Chinua Achebe in his book “Things Fall Apart” emphasized that cultures and traditions fell apart in Igbo Society shortly after westernization concept was introduced in Nigeria through electronic and direct media channels.
In major cities in Enugu State, it is common to observe young ladies going half-naked on the street. This is a typical western culture learned from television Agbo (2007:196). “Electronic media is the slave master of culture of weak nations”, says Uche (2012: 98). What media transfer as culture; notwithstanding, sometimes, is capable of causing war among the receiving nations, and television and other sources are doing the society more harm than good in terms of cultural dependency.
In this study, the major and minor effects of electronic media would be extensively investigate and dealt with as the study progresses. The extent to which electronic media exaggerate cultural imperialism shall be fathomed effectively.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The task of transmitting culture, entertaining the society, disseminating information, educating people and monitoring those in power are responsibilities of electronic media in the society. The level to which these functions have been achieved by the media is enormous.
Meanwhile, the problems of this study are to investigate the power of electronic media behind cultural imperialism in Enugu metropolis, to ascertain why electronic media is largely accused of causing global cultural imbalance in the society, and to study the relationship between electronic media and imperialism of culture in modern society.
Also to observe the effects of the electronic media culture imperialism on people in the modern society.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Objective of this study is to study the impact of electronic media on modern society with respect to cultural imperialism. Specifically, the following objectives shall help to solve the problems of the study:
- To know the impact/effects of electronic media on cultural colonialism of modern African society by their superior western culture.
- To study imperialism, especially the electronic type.
- Whether the influence exerted on the people by electronic media are negative in nature.
- To find out if actually electronic media is responsible for cultural imperialism of the modern society.
- To find out the relationship that exists between electronic media and the cultural imperialism.
- To proffer solution to the cases of media cultural
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
All those affected by media cultural imperialism, that is, the Third World Nations shall benefit a lot from this study. This is so because the researcher shall provide eternal solutions to the persistent relegation of ones culture by the most powerful states through electronic media.
The growing waves of indecent dressing, foreign religions pattern, foreign language etc, shall be reduced, especially in Enugu urban. The original culture of Igbo society shall be rekindled and celebrated once again in the area after this study is been carried out.
This study shall benefit African society because it shall advocate for global cultural balance through electronic media.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are provided to guide the researcher elicit variables from the members of the population. They are:
- Do electronic media contents lead to cultural imperialism in Enugu metropolis?
- Can the influence of electronic media on cultural imperialism be considered negative on the people of Enugu urban?
- Are there relationship between electronic media and cultural imperialism observed amongst Enugu urban residents?
- Should electronic media be blamed for the level of cultural imperialism in Enugu urban area?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Eze (2008:146) describes hypothesis as a proposition or set of proposition set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specific group of phenomena, which must be proved or disproved after study in order to get solution to an existing problem. The hypotheses are;
H1: Electronic media contents lead to cultural imperialism in Enugu metropolis.
H0: Electronic media contents do not lead to cultural imperialism in Enugu metropolis.
H2: The influence of electronic media on cultural imperialism can be considered negative on the people of Enugu urban.
H0: The influence of electronic media on cultural imperialism cannot be considered negative on the people of Enugu urban.
H3: There are relationships between electronic media and cultural imperialism observed among Enugu urban residents.
H0: There are no relationships between electronic media and cultural imperialism observed among Enugu urban residents.
H4: Electronic media should be blamed for the level of cultural imperialism in Enugu urban.
H0: Electronic media should not be blamed for the level of cultural imperialism in Enugu urban.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The nature of this study requires a suitable theory which is in consonant with the study of electronic media effects on cultural imperialism in Enugu urban. Meanwhile, the researcher adopted cultural imperialism theory of mass media. This theory was propounded by Herbert Schiler in 1973, in his work titled “communication and cultural domination”. Schiler states that western nations dominate the media around the world which in turn has a powerful effect on Third World cultures by imposing on them western views and therefore, destroying their native values/culture.
Honors (2000, February 4) posted on the internet while interpreting the theory inferred that “western civilization produces the majority of the films, news, comics, computers, etc because they have the money to do so. The rest of the world purchases those productions because it is cheap for them to do so rather than produce their own. Therefore, Third World nations are watching media filled western word’s way of life, believing and thinking.
In his meta-theoretical assumptions, Honors (2000) analyses:
This theory says that humans do not have the free will to close how they feel, act, think and live. They react to what they see on television because these is nothing else to compare it to besides their own lives, usually portray as less than what it should be.
He emphasized that there is a logical flow of events and consequences within the theory.
McQuail (2000: 221) notes that cultural imperialism implies “a deliberate attempt to dominate, invade or subvert the culture space” of others and suggest a degree of coercion in the audiences of the invaded nation (cited in Agbo 2007:180).
Based on the analyses of the theory above, it is believed that residents of Enugu urban are the invaded consumers of western culture who have no resources to reciprocate in the proportional manner (Boyd – Barret, 1997: 117-118).
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is Enugu metropolis. The metropolis of Enugu State comprises areas like Ogui, GRA, Uwani, Achara layout, Independence Layout – etc. These area have total population of 722664 which the researcher designed to study their attitudes and responses toward electronic media influence of cultural imperialism. This study shall cover only Enugu capital to ensure that the problems of the study are effectively carried out.
1.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This project is limited to some extent because of financial constraints encountered in the course of searching for data useful for the study.
Time factor is another problem the researcher grappled with. Lack of some relevant materials within the area of the study is another challenge that faced the study.
1.10 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
- a) Impact: Conceptually, impact is the effect, result, or attribute of something that can be physically or psychologically observed.
Operationally, it can be seen as either negative or positive values derived from electronic media especially as it relates to cultural imperialism in modern society of Enugu urban.
- b) Electronics: Conceptually, electronics are electrified equipment such as radio, computers, etc which can only be functional through the help of electricity power supply.
Operationally, they are electro-magnetic equipment that is used to gather process and disseminate information, idea or culture from one place to another.
- c) Media: Conceptually, media are channels through which messages (pictures, text, voice) can be passed across audience from one place to another.
Operationally, media are radio, TV, cameras, computers used to transfer culture from one country to another which cause cultural imperialism.
- d) Culture: This is conceptually described as the totality of people’s way of life such as language, dressing etc.
Operationally, culture is any pattern of thinking, views, life style, language, belief, etc which electronic media transfer to other nations who may be capable or otherwise to resist affects in the society, especially amongst residents in Enugu urban.
- e) Imperialisms: Conceptually, this is a policy of extending a nation’s power and influence by establishing colonies. It is an official way of making a weaker nation slave by the superior are.
Operationally, this is the recognition of ones culture as inferior which should be relegated to the background.
- f) Modern: Conceptually refers to new, current or present form/type.
Operationally, modern is the present generation with which cultural imperialism is fashionable such as in Enugu urban area.
- g) Society: Conceptually, society is the group of people living together and shares things together in common such as culture, religion etc.
Operationally, a society is a group of people in Enugu urban who share things in common and who suffer cultural imperialism through electronic media.
- h) Enugu: This is conceptually seen as one of the state governments in Nigeria with the Igbo nation.
Operationally, Enugu is a state whose culture has been imperialized by the stronger western culture through electronic media.
- i) Urban: Conceptually, urban is a developed part of a definite geography which people live en-mass.
Operationally, it is the most developed area in Enugu state lived by people whose cultures are imperialized by electronic media.
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