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Title page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                                        iii

Acknowledgment                                                                              iv

Table of content                                                                                vi

Abstract                                                                                            vii

Chapter One

  • Introduction 1
    • Purpose of the study                                                           3
    • Scope of study 3
    • Significance of study 3
    • Limitation of study                                                                 4
    • Definition of terms 4

Chapter Two

  • Literature Review           5
    • Urine composition and characteristics           7
    • Abnormal constituents of urine           8
    • Physical test 10
    • Biochemical Test 11
    • Microscopic test 14

Chapter three

  • Research methodology                                                               17
    • Collection of urine samples                                                        18
    • Examination of culture plates                                                    18
    • Motility test                                                                               19
    • Hanging drop preparation                                                                  20
    • Biochemical test                                                                        20
    • Slide test 21
    • Tube test method 21
    • Oxidase test 21
    • Urease testing                                                                         22
    • Indole test 22
    • Carbohydrate fermentation test 23
    • Antimicrobial susceptibility testing 23
    • Control test 23
    • Interpretation                                                                              24

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and discussion                                                                25

  • Results                                                          25
  • Discussion 34

Chapter  Five

  • Recommendation and conclusion 37

5.1 Recommendation                                                                        37

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                  38

Reference                                                                                          39

Appendix                                                                                          41





The abnormality in urine components obtained from 102 urine samples collected from informed and consenting student of Federal Polytechnic Auchi were investigated biochemically, microscopically and macroscopically. The biochemical analyses were determined in whole urine sample (for protein, Glucose, Nitrite, Bilirubin, Urobilinogen, Ketones and Blood). Normal values of these percentages were determined and statistical comparism among the samples were performed. The abnormal components that was found in the urine samples were casts, crystals, blood, glucose and microorganisms The solated organisms from the urine cultures were Esherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia. Bacteria infection for female students (59.8%) was higher than that of their counterpart male (23.5%). Escherichia coli had the highest percentage valve (45%) while staphylococcus aureus was the least in occurrence (1%). The presence of these abnormal components in urine samples indicates a urinary tract infections. It was observed basically that urinary infection management requires the full cooperation of the patient, the medical laboratory technologist and medical doctor to diagnose and treat effectively.













Urine (from latin urina) is a liquid by-product of the body secreted by the kidney through the process called urination or micturition and excreted through the urethra (Arthur and John, 2006) in humans, soluble wastes are excreted primarily by urinary system. (Arthur and John, 2006). The urinary bladder and urethra (Hanno et al; 2001) The major function of the urinary system is to remove waste product from the body and help to regulate the volume and composition of blood by the production and excretion of urine (Rose et al, 2015). The system produces urine by a process of filtration, reabsorbtion and tubular secretion (Simerville et al; 2005). The amount of urine produced is influenced by environmental temperature, fluid intake, emotional state, and time of day and metabolic activities (White, 1991).

Urine is composed of about 95% water with the remaining 5% comprising of various organic and in organic substances such as urea, uric acid, creatine, ammonia, sodium chloride, sulfates and phosphates (Carrol and Temte, 2000). These substances are suppose to be present in some specific proportions which indicate a normal working condition of the body mechanism but in some cases this is not so, some of these substances which are the normal composition of urine may not be present or they may be present in an abnormal proportion (Al-Jebouri and Atalar, 2012).

Micro organism and substances which are not suppose to be found in the urine may be present and these condition indicate various ailments for example the presence of protein, glucose, ketone, casts e.t.c in the urine may indicate malfunction of the kidneys or some other organs of the body (Arthur and John, 2006). These various substances can be detected and analysed by urinalysis (Simerville et al; 2005).

Urinalysis also called a routine urine test is used to check for abnormalities in the urine (Ahmed and lee, 1997). A number of diseases and conditions can result in abnormalities in urine. These abnormalities often may be detected through the physical, chemical and microscopic examination of the urine (Fuller et al 2001).


This research work was carried out to equip the general public with enough knowledge about urine. It is aimed at

knowing the normal constituents of urine and being able to know when certain body process are not working well as well as to identify and examine abnormal urine constituents



This work covers the physical, biochemical and microscopic examination of urine samples obtained from sexually active young adults between the age range of 15-31 and are students of Auchi Polytechnic. It also entails the identification of the various urine components that makes it abnormal.


The use of this research work would help to enlighten the general public on the abnormalities in urine and the need to carry out routine urinalysis from time to time. This knowledge could lead to the improvement on human health conditions concerning urine related diseases.


In the course of carrying out this project work, some factors militated against the success of the work. These factors includes inadequate laboratory equipment, irregular power supply, low financial capacity and time constrain.


Urinalysis: This is the analysis of urine by physical, chemical and microscopical means to test for the presence of disease, drug e.t.c in the body.

URINARY TRACT INFECTION (U.T.I): Is an infection of the kidney, ureter, bladder and/or urethra.

HEMATURIA: This is blood in the urine

CASTS: These are cylindrical structures created by protein precipitation in the renal tubules.



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