A final-year project is an original piece of writing between 10,000 and 20,000 words long that is submitted as a PDF or Word document. It is a scientific investigation that often employs scientific techniques to meet predetermined goals and respond to the research questions. A research project’s completion makes a significant contribution to completing a degree program.

How to Write a Final Year Project

Accurate information about each of the five chapters will be present in a thorough final year project research. While some people start with chapter two to get their goals and problem statement, others start with chapter one and work their way down to chapter five.

Chapter one

Introduction: The first chapter of the research project deals with a general introduction and describes the issue that will be studied. The background of the study, the statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, the research questions, the research hypothesis, the significance of the study, the scope of the study, the operational definition of terms, and the organization of the study are all included in chapter one, as shown in the format above.

  • The background of the study provides context to the information being discussed, it include current information, relevant history.
  • The statement of the problem is a concise description of an issue to be addressed or improved upon. A good research problem should address an existing gap in knowledge.
  • The research objectives describe concisely what the research is trying to achieve, it summarizes the accomplishment the researcher hopes to achieve through the research. There is the general objectives and the specific objectives.
  • Research questions is an answerable inquiry into a specific concern or issue. They are questions the research project sets out to answer. It is important to note that the research question and research objectives tallies.
  • Research hypothesis is a clear, specific and testable proposition or predictive statement about the possible outcome of a scientific research study. In undertaking a research project, only the null hypothesis is required.
  • Significance of the study provide details to the reader on how the study will contribute to existing literature, it determines who benefits and how they would benefit from the research findings.
  • Scope of the study defines clearly the content covered in the research. It can include the year the research covered for time-series data, variables involved, a research carried out using primary data might include brief detail of the study area.
  • Operational definition of terms comprises of a single sentence definition of words mainly used in the study and how it is used in the study.
  • Organization of study briefly establish how each chapter is constructed.

Chapter two

Literature review: Chapter 2 of the study project is the literature review, which gives the most recent information on a given issue, including significant results as well as theoretical and empirical contributions. The second chapter includes an introduction, reviews of conceptual literature, empirical study reviews, theoretical reviews, theoretical frameworks, and gaps in the literature.

  • The introduction gives a brief details of what chapter two contains. It usually in one paragraph.
  • Conceptual literature contains literature coming from books, journalism and other forms of material, relevant to the study that are non-empirical. It includes definition of key concepts by various scholars and discussion of key issues related to the study.
  • Empirical literature review deals with original research (such as scientific experiments, survey). They are research based on observation rather than on systematic logic. In constructing the empirical review, it is important to note that the author’s name, year the research was carried out, topic of research, source of data, method of data analysis, and findings is required.
  • Theories are formulated to explain, predict and understand phenomena and in many cases to challenge and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding assumptions. The theoretical review help establish what theories already exist, the relationship between them. Note that the theories reviewed must be related to the project research study.
  • Theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support the research study. The most applicable theory is used as the theoretical framework, selected from the theories reviewed.
  • The gap(s) is the missing piece(s) in the research literature that has not yet been explored or is under-explored. It could be due to sample size, research variables, research method, and scope etc.

Chapter three

Research methodology: Chapter 3 discusses research methodology and covers the steps or methods needed to choose, collect, and evaluate the variables and/or data on the subject.

Chapter 3 provides information on secondary data sources, types, estimating techniques, model definitions, and evaluation standards.

When using primary sources, chapter three includes an introduction that provides a summary of the chapter in one or two sentences. The framework for the research methods the researcher selects, such as surveys, is known as the research design (descriptive, case-study, etc.). A sizable group of people or things that are the subject of the investigation typically make up the population of the study. Statistical inferences for the entire study population are made using the sampling size, sampling technique, and a data collection instrument. It is crucial to choose the data collection equipment since research is conducted in various ways and for various goals.

Data collection technique, such as a questionnaire, an interview, etc. While choosing a survey instrument, validity and reliability are crucial considerations. Validity is the degree to which an instrument measures what it was intended to assess, whereas reliability is the amount to which an instrument provides the same results over repeated trials. There should be a pilot test. The data analysis method describes how the data will be evaluated, including frequency and table analysis and hypothesis testing methods.

Chapter four

Presentation and analysis of data: Chapter 4 includes an introduction, testing of the hypothesis, discussion of the results, and implications for policy. In the introduction, chapter four is briefly described, typically in one paragraph. The data are presented and analyzed in such a way that the research questions from chapter one are addressed. This is known as data presentation and analysis. In chapter four, the first chapter’s hypothesis is put to the test. The approach utilized is determined by the type of data used and the goal of the study. The findings are analyzed and their implications are provided in the concluding section.

Chapter five

Conclusions and recommendations: Chapter 5 includes an introduction that briefly describes what the chapter will cover, as well as an overview of the entire project from chapters one through four. The conclusion outlines the main discovery made as a result of the investigation, or what was discovered. Limitations to the study are flaws or factors that the researcher cannot control and hence set restrictions on technique and results. Recommendations are suggestions the research has and are typically based on findings. As a result, chapter five, which comes after the research is complete, outlines the limits the study faced. Further research ideas and other relevant studies that could be conducted should be included.


It contains a complete list of all the references used in the study. All writers who are cited must have their works correctly referenced. Choose the referencing style that is appropriate for your institution out of the various ones available.


These are extra information or materials that are too time-consuming to be included in the project’s main body. It helps to give a more thorough knowledge of the research. This concludes the research project.

An abstract is created following the conclusion of the project from chapters one to five, together with the reference and appendices, and it includes a summary of the project’s topic, objectives, scope, statistical analysis method, findings, and recommendations.

Following all corrections, bind the document by adding the title page, declaration, certification, dedication, acknowledgement, table of contents, list of tables, and abstract.

A final year project is really simple to write.

Wishing you luck

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